Monthly Archives: June 2013

Scent Marketing: Subliminal Advertising Messages

stock-photo-16339343-perfumeBernadette Emsenhuber
Johannes Kepler University Linz, Department of Pervasive Computing

Abstract                                                                                                      Store chains and service providers beguile customers with a pleasant shopping atmosphere often realized by installing scent diffusers to evaporate overwhelming fragrances. Such systems named as olfactory technology are becoming a standard interior of commercial locations as well as public places and are more and more gain importance in human-computer interaction. This paper delivers insight into current air design technology, the psychological background of scent marketing and gives a basis of discussing the relevance of olfactory communication for pervasive advertising and human-computer interaction.

Like other media-based business advertising industry is increasingly confronted with the problem of information overload. Penetrating this bead of information and reaching costumers with advertising messages appreciably becomes difficult. An important issue for advertisers is finding new methods to persuade consumers of their goods and services. First impressions coming up with the word advertising are posters, newspaper ads, commercials on TV or radio, etc., actually visual and auditory media. But the advertising industry also uses consumption raising instruments like scents which can manipulate consumer behavior by unconsciously raising emotions and consequently manipulating purchase decisions.  Experts defined this type of advertising as scent marketing or air design. The olfactory perception is an interface which allows a very subliminal communication between human beings and their environment because of a direct connection of the olfactory system to our emotional center. In the mid nineties psychologist examined the effect of scents on purchase behavior and confirmed that perfumed sales rooms would contribute to increase
sales [Sto98]. Therefore marketing experts did not hesitate to use the olfactory channel as ¨medium for subliminal messages.

To read the entire paper click below:

Image: © Talaj

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Book Review: Essential Oils – A Handbook for Aromatherapy Practice 2nd Edition

EOs J. Rhind

Essential Oils – A Handbook for Aromatherapy  Practice 2nd Edition    by Jennifer Rhind

I must admit to the fact that I feel I’ve known this book for a long time and have watched it blossom into this wonderful publication. I first saw it some years ago in its draft stager Rhind  when Sue Jenkins, who was then a fellow IFPA council member and work colleague of Jennifer’s, brought it to the IFPA conference to see if therapists and students would be interested in buying a copy. It obviously past this test. Soon it appeared on my Amazon recommendations list and I purchased a copy that has now become one of my ‘go to’ books and is very well thumbed. On seeing that a 2nd version (revised edition) had been released I went through the ‘do I need it?’ ponderings. This however didn’t take long and I can  honestly say I’m glad I bought it.

The preface sets the scene and conjures up wonderful pictures of childhood and aromas. After reading this and talking to other aromatherapists, I am con-vinced that we are destined from an early age to  enter this love affair with scents and aromas, tempting us deeper into a world where there is definitely no return.

This 2nd edition has essentially doubled in size from the first one. It is divided into three sections. The first supplies the essential knowledge of aromatherapy. The second focuses on blending essential oils, going into detail about the various styles and methods. The third and final section provides profiles of not just ‘true’ essential oils but also resinoids and absolutes.

I loved the fact that, in the history section, Jennifer left out the ‘ancient history’ and focused on the ‘recent history,’ bringing to life authors that are           respected and cherished as pioneers and evolutionaries of this aromatic discipline.

The second section on the approaches to creating an essential oil synergy gave me food for thought about how I approach blending essential oils and creating blends. The author starts with the concepts of synergy and antagonism, expanding this out to cover the concepts of blending essential oils, whilst covering perfumery, the five elements, Ayurvedic theories, and the chakras. Since reading this section, I have fallen down the ‘aromatic rabbit hole’ and spent hours playing with blends and using different principles in my blending and then comparing the results.

The third section may become the ‘go to’ section. It covers plant taxonomy, anatomy, and classification. Each family and genus are documented along with uses and relevant substantiating evidence. Absolutes and resinoids are covered in their own chapter.

A glossary is included at the back of the book along with extensive appendices, references, and suggestions for further reading.

My only criticism is that while many hours have been spent researching and adding information in this new edition to confirm and substantiate the text, it is not possible to read and evaluate it yourself unless you have access to a university library or pay a hefty on-line subscription.

This book is sure to become one of the classic  aromatherapy texts. It is an affordable, accessible book that I will be using myself, recommending to others, and using with my students.

Published by Singing Dragon                                                                                                           ISBN: 978-1-84819-089-4   List price: $35.00

Review by Anita James, SPdipA, MIFPA, Cert Ed.