Monthly Archives: July 2013

Summer Sweetness of Linden


Linden flowers (and bract – the leaf-like structure attached to the flowers) make a beautiful and delicate tea that eases tension and anxiety and has an overall calming effect to the body, making it an excellent evening tea to aid sleep .  It can also be used to ease muscle tension, headaches and menstrual pain.  It has an affinity for the heart and is an amazing heart tonic on all levels.  It lowers blood pressure and can help arteriosclerosis and works well in combination with Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) for heart conditions. Emotionally, the two combined can ease heartache and help heal a broken heart. Traditionally, Linden was used to treat epilepsy and convulsions.

Try these recipes…

Linden Cooler

Recipe by Erin Smith

1 part Linden Tea (you can use fresh or dried linden flowers)
1 part Lemonade
Sliced strawberries (to taste)

If possible, make the linden tea the night before, allowing it to infuse overnight. Strain and combine with the lemonade in a large pitcher. Add the strawberries; if wanting a stronger strawberry flavor fill a 1/4 of the pitcher with slices. Add ice and serve.

Linden infused honey

1 part linden flowers
1 part raw local honey

Place your fresh linden flowers in a glass jar. While the bract is also traditionally used for medicinal purposes, using only the fresh flowers will make a stronger flavored honey.  Cover with honey.  Make sure that the flowers are completely submerged in honey. The flowers will tend to sit at the top for the first few days.  If after a few days, they are still not submerged, add more honey until they are covered. Allow to sit for 2-6 weeks and use as desired.  The flowers will become candied and are delicious on their own.  If you wish to remove the flowers after infusing, then place the flowers in a make-shift tea bag made out of cheesecloth and place in jar (with the edges sticking out of the top so it will be easy to remove later). Cover with honey.  After it has infused, lightly warm the honey (do not over heat) until it has a more liquid consistency and remove the “tea bag”.  For a lighter flavored honey, cut the amount of flowers used in half.

For more delicious ways to use herbs in food, check out Erin Smith’s Herbal Kitchen program in Boulder on July 17th.

The Van Dyke

Recipe by Michael Heim

2 oz Bombay Sapphire Gin
0.5 oz fresh lemon juice
0.5 oz linden infused honey syrup (3:1 honey:water)
1 Bar spoon of house grapefruit bitters.
Shaken, double strained up in a chilled coupe glass

For more information about Linden/Lime (Tilia spp.) check out The Center for Integrative Botanical Studies Newsletter at

Image:  Linden blossoms and leaves Copyright All rights reserved by Jude’s Jewels /

Essential Oil Profile: Eucalyptus staigeriana


Eucalyptus staigeriana is an uncommon essential oil, so little information is available on it as a whole essential oil.  Due to the lack of information on the therapeutic applications of E. stageriana, we can look at its chemistry in-order to extrapolate some of the potential applications for this beautiful and gentle lemon-scented essential oil. It differs from Eucalyptus citriodora, which is rich in the aldehyde citronellal. Citronellal, unlike citral, has a much harsher potent lemon aroma.

The main components according to one of the few papers available on its chemistry are: limonene and citral. We will explore research on each of these components to further our understanding of the potential applications for E. stageriana.

Therapeutic actions                                                                           Analgesic, antibacterial, anticarcinogenic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiviral, anthelmintic, anxiolytic, immune modulatory, sedative, skin penetration enhancer

Relieve inflammation massage oil

1 oz/30 ml Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis)

7 drops Eucalyptus staigeriana

5 drops Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum)

2 drops German chamomile (Matricaria recutita)

Blend all essential oils into the jojoba oil and pour into a 1 oz bottle. Gently massage a small amount into area/s where needed

by Jade Shutes, BA, Dipl. AT, Certified Herbalist

Image:  E. staigeriana by John Moss/WikiMedia Commons

The full article appears in the Summer 2013 issue of the International Journal of  Professional Holistic Aromatherapy (IJPHA-Vol. 2, Issue 1).  To subscribe visit

Disclaimer                                                                                                                                                   The editor/publisher does not accept  responsibility for the opinions, advice, and recommendations of its contributors.  Furthermore, the IJPHA accepts no    responsibility for any incident or injury to  persons or property resulting from the use of any method, products, instructions or ideas contained within this publication.

Recipe from the Sensual Kitchen–Summer Gazpacho

Kris_GazpachoSummer Gazpacho

Enjoy this really delicious and filling summer gazpacho.  Not your typical gazpacho as this has salty olives, chickpeas and is enhanced with essential oils for an extra kick of flavor!







Pour the following into a large bowl:

46 oz/1274 ml tomato juice

15 oz/425 gm frozen or fresh cooked corn

15 oz/425 gm garbanzo beans

30 pitted black olives (optional)

16 oz/454 gm medium size fresh tomatoes, diced

29 oz/822 gm fire-roasted diced tomatoes with green chiles

1/2 large yellow pepper, diced

1/2 large red pepper, diced

1/2 large poblano pepper, diced

1 large cucumber, peeled and diced small

In a saucepan over low heat add the following:

1/4 cup/113 gm honey

20 drops Lemon (Citrus limon) essential oil

3 drops Black Pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil

Remove from heat and add the following:

1 1/2 teaspoons salt

1 1/2 teaspoons chili powder

1/2 teaspoon cumin

1/2 teaspoon coriander

Mix the spices and essential oils well, then add to the tomatoes and peppers.  Mix well and serve chilled.

Serves 10

Kris Wrede is an Aromatic Alchemist offering classes in aromatherapy and cooking with essential oils.  Her fabulous recipes and guidelines for cooking with essential oils can be seen in several issues of the International Journal of Professional Holistic Aromatherapy.  This recipe appears in the Summer 2013 issue of the IJPHA.  To subscribe, visit

Image:  Lora Cantele

Disclaimer                                                                                                                                                   The editor/publisher does not accept  responsibility for the opinions, advice, and recommendations of its contributors.  Furthermore, the IJPHA accepts no    responsibility for any incident or injury to  persons or property resulting from the use of any method, products, instructions or ideas contained within this publication.

Alpha and Beta Pinene

Most essential oils are comprised of chemical compounds known collectively as “terpenoid” compounds. A typical essential oil profile will have several dozen different compounds, all of which have differing structures, aromas and therapeutic properties. In my book, “Chemistry of Aromatherapeutic Essential Oils” which was published in 2003, I group the different compounds by their so-called “skeleton” and then by their functional group, which is a small part of the molecule usually containing double C=C bonds or an oxygen atom or two.

How pinene molecules interact with our body systems                      At the bacterial level, much interest is being shown in molecules that interact with bacterial chemical communication, one key feature of which is known as quorum sensing (Fig.2). This is the ability of a group of bacteria to sense when there are enough of them present to “go pathogenic.” Most bacteria that infect animals do so as single-celled creatures.  But when they have replicated to a critical number, the


Fig. 2 Quorum sensing    Caroline Dahl-Wikimedia Commons

chemicals they use to communicate with reach a high enough concentration to switch on other behaviours that allow the bacteria to work together, almost like a multi-cellular organism. They group together in colonies, produce mats of slime, and start pumping out nasty toxins that allow them to kill off competing bacteria, and in our case, body cells, all in an effort to control the access to nutrients which allow an even greater increase in numbers. Some plant compounds have been shown to either mimic or block the ability of bacteria to carry out quorum sensing (Table 1), which effectively blocks their ability to “go pathogenic,” and thus means that no disease state occurs (although the bacteria are still present, and in some cases, still alive). The essential oil compounds discovered so far that inhibit quorum sensing in various micro-organisms include citral (geranial-neral mixture), α-pinene, β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, α-zingiberene and pulegone (Jaramillo-Colorado et al, 2012). From a therapeutic point of view, particularly for dermal and mucous membrane infections (nose, throat, lung), there are exciting possibilities that continually vaporising essential oils containing these compounds could prevent existing bacteria in our respiratory systems from developing into infections and disease.

by E. Joy Bowles, PhD, BSc (Hons)

The full article can be seen in the Summer 2013 issue of the International Journal of Professional Holistic Aromatherapy (IJPHA-Vol. 2, Issue 1).  Go to to subscribe.

Endobiogeny and Aromatherapy

ImageIntroduction                                                                                               Clinical aromatherapy offers many advantages in the care of patients, including low dosing requirements and multiple administration routes, such as inhalation, topical, oral and rectal. Contemporary clinical aromatherapy can be traced to the empirical work of Dr. Jean Valnet and the scientific work of his students, Christian Duraffourd, MD and Jean Claude Lapraz, MD, among others.

Clinical aromatherapy can lead to very satisfactory symptomatic relief for many patients, and much of the literature to date has focused almost exclusively on symptomatic treatment (Buckle, 1999; Hedayet, 2008; Hueberger et al, 2004 and 2006; Tildesley et al, 2003 and 2005; Lin, 2007; Goel et al, 2005; Haze et al 2002). For clinical aromatherapy to advance to a precise methodology, a systematic approach is needed in order to evaluate the totality of a patient’s illness. The Endobiogenic method, developed by Drs. Duraffourd and Lapraz over the last 40 years, presents such an approach. The original work was with essential oils, and essential oils still play an important role in this method (Duraffourd and Lapraz, 2002).

Endobiogeny                                                                                                          Endobiogeny is a systems approach to clinical practice that takes into account the entire system of the body: the individual organs, cellular and metabolic activity, in and of themselves as well as in relationship to each other and to the global functioning of the person. It is firmly rooted in modern scientific research in endocrinology, physiology and pathology (Lapraz and Hedayat, 2013).  Endobiogeny is the integrative study of the structural mechanisms of regulation of the human body during homeostasis as well as its functional response to internal and external stressors, such as infectious pathogens and emotional stress.

The Endobiogenic method evaluates the qualitative and quantitative state of the body and its internal milieu: the biological ‘terrain’ in which the body operates. The Endobiogenic treatment strategy is to re-establish the pre-illness terrain of the individual’s constitution. When this is not possible, then we seek to support buffering capacity and help the organism achieve the highest level of homeostatic function.  The buffering capacity are the adaptive mechanisms that the body has to deal with when sudden demands placed on it. For example, the body stores bicarbonate and can quickly deal with some acid build up in this way. Another example is that 98% of most hormones are bound and unusable, staying in a back up state attached to carrier proteins. However, during times of great physiologic demand, these hormones (like T3) can be quickly released. Symptoms of any disease are always regarded in the context of the global functioning of the entire organism.

The Endobiogenic method consists of three arms. The first is a detailed history, starting with prenatal history, childhood characteristics, family history, hereditary factors, etc. A timeline is created that maps out various important physical and emotional traumas which are then related to the onset and progression of various symptoms.

The second arm is a detailed physical examination. The Endobiogenic examination is quite comprehensive and unique in many ways. It is based on the observation that certain neurologic and endocrine relationships can be seen and palpated on the human body. For example, dopamine is known to affect the rapidity of spontaneous blinking (Karson, 1989). A patient who complains of anxiety and blinks a lot has elevated dopamine. An essential oil with neuro-physiological dissociative properties, such as Ylang ylang (Cananga odorata), may be indicated for such a patient. (A neuro-physiological dissociative is an agent that increases mental activity while reducing physiological signs of stress, such as blood pressure and heart rate.) Recent clinical studies showed inhalation and transdermal applications of Ylang ylang increase a state of calm-focus (alpha waves) while reducing peripheral blood pressure (Hongratanaworakit and Buchbauer, 2004 and 2006). As another example, cortisol causes a fat pad to develop over the zygomatic arch, among other places. A patient with symptoms of stress and fatigue with such a fat pad may benefit from a neuro-endocrine balancer, a product that supports adrenal activity while reducing central nervous system and hormonal stimulation of the adrenal gland. Clary sage (Salvia sclarea) is a good example of an essential oil suited to the terrain of such a person (Park and Lee, 2004).

The third arm of the endobiogenic approach is a biological modeling system, the Biology of Functions. The Biology of Functions is a biological modeling tool that relates serum biomarkers through direct and indirect ratios and products. It allows for both a quantitative and qualitative assessment of the terrain of the patient and can greatly enhance a clinician’s treatment of the true cause of the patient’s illness. Because of the mathematical nature of the indices, a patient’s status can be assessed objectively over time (Lapraz and Hedayat, 2013).

With a proper assessment of the terrain, the Endobiogenic practitioner is able to apply a rational phytotherapeutic regimen. It is our belief that the use of medicinal plants and their various extracts—including essential oils—is the most efficient method for regulating imbalances. However, the Endobiogenic method also uses other remedies, including the judicious use of pharmaceutical products where indicated by the severity of the disease and/or the insufficiency of the buffering capacities of the patient.

by Jean Claude Lapraz MD, Kamyar M. Hedayat, MD, and Dan Kenner PhD, LAc

Image:  © annuker

The full article can be seen in the June 2013 issue of the International Journal of Professional Holistic Aromatherapy (IJPHA-Vol. 2, Issue 1).  Go to to subscribe.

Disclaimer                                                                                                                                         The editor/publisher does not accept  responsibility for the opinions, advice, and recommendations of its contributors.  Furthermore, the IJPHA accepts no    responsibility for any incident or injury to  persons or property resulting from the use of any method, products, instructions or ideas contained within this publication.