Category Archives: Aromatherapy

Plagiarism and Copyright Infringement in the Aromatherapy Community

elephant-plagiarism (1)

Written by Lauren Bridges and Hana Bělíková

I’ve never really explained how I came up with the name Aromapologist.

While I do have a background in anthropology as has been pointed out before, Aromapologist is actually a play on apologetics and combining it with aromatherapy. The fact that it looks like it loops anthropology in with it is just a fun bonus for me and a coincidental shout out to good times past. But, before Indigo Aromatics Services, LLC was established, I created The Aromapologist as a platform to discuss matters within the aromatherapy community and our craft that may be considered a bit more controversial in many cases.

That all being said, in the spirit of this blog’s creation, I’m going to bring up a few subjects that are going to be polemic, not because I want to or like it, but because in this particular case it is very necessary. Those subjects are plagiarism and copyright infringement.

These are not enjoyable subjects to write about, so let’s establish that fact right now. I hate this. Plagiarism and copyright infringement are ugly, distressing words that immediately instill a sinking tension that no amount of lavender is going to resolve, especially if you are on the receiving side of things. We all remember the gut-wrenching feeling of someone parading our ideas as their own, from a classmate copying our science project, to our BFF wearing the same dress to the prom. Some are a bit more serious than others.

In professional terms, these subjects force us to address concerns that are of both an ethical and legal nature. As such, we are unceremoniously dumped into territory that requires an honest examination of the aspect of our psyche that puts us on edge as well as compels our conscience to moral reasoning. We are required to fight for ourselves. In other words, it is a raw, hackles-raised position in which to find oneself, and this is especially true when the subject matter involves friends and colleagues where there is more than just matters of professionalism at stake.

Such is the nature of community.

But in a community of healers and individuals dedicated to helping those who are already hurting, these matters cross over into a more sacred territory: the relationship between teachers and students and the trust between a practitioner and their client. These relationships require trust.

We are a voracious gathering of people craving information – information that establishes the foundation we have to best understand the art behind aromatherapy so we may care for our families and ourselves. This goes for both professionals and enthusiasts alike. But when that trust is violated through the false establishment of expertise at the moral and legal expense of work that belongs to our colleagues, the positive intention that is rooted in the effort of so many is tainted.

Plagiarism and copyright infringement are both examples of intellectual property theft. Theft. Let that sink in for a minute. It is quite literally as serious as it sounds, and there can also be legal ramifications in certain instances just as there can be with other examples of theft. These two topics are similar yet different, but they both contribute to one very large elephant in the room that cannot be ignored.

Time we flat out name that elephant Not Okay.

Intellectual Property Theft

The National Crime Prevention Council defines intellectual property theft as follows:

“Intellectual property is any innovation, commercial or artistic; any new method or formula with economic value; or any unique name, symbol, or logo that is used commercially. Intellectual property is protected by patents on inventions; trademarks on branded devices; copyrights on music, videos, patterns, and other forms of expression; and state and federal laws” (Ncpc.org, 2017).

In regard to what we see in the aromatherapy community, this means that anything you write (of which any original content is automatically copyrighted), any memes or infographics you create, etc. is intellectual property. Piracy of intellectual property is a crime. Literally. It is not a harmless act and the cost to the original owners of the intellectual property can be great. It is the theft of hard work and time spent, and depending on how that theft is used, it can also rob the creators of income. This in particular can land the individual stealing material in legal hot water.

Copyright Infringement

Simply put, copyright infringement is a legal matter in which copyrighted work has been reproduced, publicly performed or displayed, distributed, or has had derivative work created from it without appropriate crediting or permission (Lib.purdue.edu, 2017).

I want to highlight derivative work for a minute. This is precisely why there is a huge risk in merely covering well-worn subjects in blogs and memes, especially when there is a lack of citation involved. The right to create derivative works belongs the copyright owner (Anon, 2017). Period. Without permission from the copyright owner to expound on their original idea, one setting forth to write their own work based on the portion of the work that is original copyright, add to that idea, etc. is guilty of copyright infringement. Now, with appropriate citation, Fair Use may protect someone from infringing on the copyright of published work (Jones, 2017), but this is not the case concerning unpublished work (Digital Information Law, 2017). This is also a spectacularly unethical thing to do. According to the Archive of American Archivists, unpublished work is defined as work “not intended for public distribution or if only a few copies were created and distribution was limited” (www2.archivists.org, 2017).

Example: Person X writes a unique article about why putting cinnamon bark oil in your baby’s ear is a bad idea. All of a sudden, Person Y decides to go also write an article about why putting cinnamon bark oil in baby’s ear is bad and mimics the originality of the first work but adds why clove oil and oregano oil are also bad to use this way. They never cite the author of the original article talking about why cinnamon bark oil in babies’ ears is bad even though they are taking the idea or argument presented in the original piece. This is an example of derivative work. The original idea and article has been used and expounded (hence the derivative), but without the permission of the owner of the copyright it is copyright infringement, and the lack of appropriate citation does not offer them any protection through Fair Use.

Could they get in legal trouble for this? Absolutely.

It does not help that copyright infringement is everywhere. If you are on the internet, you have come across it at some point. Most people are likely so accustomed to seeing it that the fact they are looking at it does not even consciously enter their mind.

Copyright infringement can also be done accidentally, believe it or not, and this is why educational institutions stress so firmly the need to be able to cite and establish the research used in writing. It must be differentiated from what constitutes original ideas, and the need for originality being within the research framework cannot be neglected.

Research is necessary to back up the reasons for ideas and hypotheses, and it should be used to help substantiate any ideas being put forth. But what is key here is supporting an original point. If all one does is set out to beat a horse that is dead and (has been) done, it becomes startlingly easy to cross into the territory of copyright violations.

Plagiarism

Quoting Robert Tisserand: “Plagiarism isn’t taking someone else’s idea and improving it, it’s taking someone else’s idea and pretending it’s yours” (obtained via personal communication, August 23, 2017).

Everyone take a minute and recognize the beauty of that citation; you can cite what people said to you without stealing their words when you write an article, create a meme, teach a class, etc.

Now, plagiarism is often thought of as word-for-word copying of a work. But plagiarism goes beyond exactly copying the words of another. Paraphrasing can also be plagiarism. You cannot merely artfully rearrange and substitute the words of an original author and call it your own work. That is actually referred to as “paraphrasing plagiarism.” This example from Indiana University Bloomington does a good job in explaining and providing an example of what paraphrasing plagiarism may look like. It explains clearly the need for both citation and referencing in order to avoid committing plagiarism (Indiana.edu, 2017).

What if I told you plagiarism is not illegal? Interestingly, it is not; however, while plagiarism itself does not violate any laws, it is a moral and ethical issue and is still wrong per accepted values within professional and academic paradigms (Hawkins, 2017).

Can it happen accidentally? Of course. And it can be easily remedied in most cases when it is done if it was truly not intentional. But plagiarism is also something that occurs frequently and with awareness, and that is half of the reason why we are having this conversation to begin with.

It seems that people have (perhaps willfully) misunderstood what actually can constitute plagiarism and intellectual property theft and think that just because an offender has not produced an exact copy of someone else’s work that there’s not enough to call foul.

Let me reiterate: word-for-word copying is just the tip of the iceberg. And like that tip, it is also most easily seen. But there is a whole mess of other issues that lurk beneath the surface that still lead to problems in professional writing and material development. Quick writing tip? Do not rely on online plagiarism detectors to determine if you’ve committed any offenses in this matter. They will not catch issues with paraphrasing plagiarism and then they are also notoriously neglectful in catching word-for-word plagiarism at times. It is always necessary to ask if an original point is being made and if the research backs that point up has been cited appropriately.

Ethical and legal implications in aromatherapy

Plagiarism and copyright infringement are not new issues, but they are issues that are only just now starting to get the more acknowledged attention they need. But why is that? What are the reasons behind plagiarism? And more importantly, how to make sure you don’t plagiarize?

It is a very hard thing to see and even worse to make space for the acknowledgment that people we know and trust may be doing this. None of us want to sit back and dwell on this capability when it comes to friends and colleagues. But if we cast emotions aside and simply evaluate the facts, it is what it is, and we cannot change the fact that these are large issues at the moment and ones that touch several areas in the industry.

I think perhaps that a large portion of these offenses occur organically as a response to new information as it comes forth – new information that is so very necessary for the sake of safe practice. Within our circles essential oil safety is a daily topic of conversation. Social media provides an easy platform to cater to this subject of discussion with several groups and public blogs being dedicated to helping those seeking real and safe information on using essential oils. So, the information is passed along, redistributed, used in memes, etc. Some people properly cite the resources in all these; others do not and instead treat it as public domain (or outright thievery). Much of the safety information that is being spread nowadays was published in 2014 in the second edition of Tisserand and Young’s Essential Oil Safety. To be clear, this work does not fall under public domain.

Robert Tisserand’s book on essential oil safety calls for interpretation, due to it being a heavy text with practical info often clouded in a lot of research and chemistry information. However, there is no need to re-invent the wheel, or not state where the information comes from. Also in today’s fast pace of internet, the pressure to come up with new and intriguing content is high. It is therefore tempting to get “inspired” by a successful blog you saw a few weeks earlier.

Copying each other is neither empowering nor beneficial in the grand scheme of things, and it certainly does not help the chatter behind the scenes. As a matter of fact, these two issues can almost paralyze the will to act and address the elephant in the room simply because the heart gets caught in the crossfires of right and wrong. I’ve been there, and emotion is an unfortunate blinder when it comes to seeing the truth sometimes. But again, when we realize it, the emotion can be removed from the equation, and we can examine the facts that are left behind. These are ethical and legal violations, and they are very serious.

Some instances are simply more glaring than others.

So, what is my point? My point is that if you are seeing this too, you’re not alone. If your work has been stolen, you’re not alone. If you are currently facing recovering stolen work, it is within your right to contact a copyright lawyer or reach out to DMCA to have matters resolved. It is within your right to ask or demand for your intellectual property to be removed from any site to which your work was added without your permission, be it the original copyright, derivative work, or plagiarism. If someone has profited from the distribution of your copyright and copyright infringement is determined to exist, you have the right to take further action for compensation. And you should.

We cannot as a community be complacent in these matters as hard as it is to have to address them. The negative influence does not need to bear its mark on a community dedicated to helping others. Not to mention that regurgitating the same information is not moving the field any further.

Do you suspect that you may actually be guilty of borrowing ideas from others? Here is a good article on how to avoid doing so inadvertently. Trust me, there is definitely enough new material in aromatherapy that even if every one of us focused only on one aspect of it, there would still be a lot of uncharted territory left. I have it on a good source that the research in essential oils is booming, and so are potential uses of these precious substances in clinical settings. Plus, there is nothing wrong in admitting who inspired you to write what you did. Quite the contrary.

And remember, the only victims existing in matters of copyright infringement and plagiarism are the original copyright owners or the ones who have had work stolen and expressed as belonging to someone else. The one taking the work and treating it as their own – for whatever purpose – is never the victim in these matters.

A special thanks to Hana Bělíková for her input, editing, and feedback during the process of writing this article. Hana, your guidance and wisdom are greatly appreciated!

Edited 8/25/17: There was some confusion about the example of derivative work used. I’ve gone back and tried to provide a little more clarity on the matter. Matters of illegal derivative work are not simple with whole court cases on the offense speckling legal history, so there will be some limitation in what is able to be expressed in an article. But to reiterate, derivative works are works that are are developed from an original copyright. This is illegal without the permission of the copyright owner. Fair Use doctrine may offer some protection in specific circumstances, but you need to make sure you have verified said protection in regard to what you are writing.

 

References:

www2.archivists.org. (2017). Copyright and Unpublished Material | Society of American Archivists. [online] Available at: https://www2.archivists.org/publications/brochures/copyright-and-unpublished-material [Accessed 24 Aug. 2017].

Anon, (2017). [online] Available at: https://www.copyright.gov/circs/circ14.pdf [Accessed 24 Aug. 2017].

Digital Information Law. (2017). The Bare Bones of Fair Use | Digital Information Law. [online] Available at: http://digitalinfolaw.com/the-bare-bones-of-fair-use/ [Accessed 23 Aug. 2017].

Hawkins, S. (2017). Copyright Infringement vs. Plagiarism – What You Need To Know. [online] Sara Hawkins. Available at: http://sarafhawkins.com/difference-copyright-and-plagiarism/ [Accessed 23 Aug. 2017].

Indiana.edu. (2017). Examples: Paraphrasing Plagiarism: How to Recognize Plagiarism, School of Education, Indiana University at Bloomington. [online] Available at: https://www.indiana.edu/~istd/example1paraphrasing.html [Accessed 23 Aug. 2017].

Jones, A. (2017). Copyright Citing. [online] Provolibrary.com. Available at: http://www.provolibrary.com/copyright-citing [Accessed 23 Aug. 2017].

Lib.purdue.edu. (2017). Copyright Basics. [online] Available at: https://www.lib.purdue.edu/uco/CopyrightBasics/basics.html#7 [Accessed 23 Aug. 2017].

Ncpc.org. (2017). Intellectual Property Theft: Get Real — National Crime Prevention Council. [online] Available at: http://www.ncpc.org/topics/intellectual-property-theft [Accessed 24 Aug. 2017].

 

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The AIA Aims to Shed Light on Growing Concerns Regarding Essential Oils

A recent market report indicates favorable shifts in consumer demand and market expansion have helped the Essential Oil Manufacturing industry thrive in the current five-year period (IBIS World, 2016).

Market share concentration in this industry is low; no company accounts for more than 5.0% of industry revenue in 2016. Furthermore, IBIS World estimates that the top four players account for less than 10.0% of revenue in 2016. The level of concentration has been slowly rising over the past five years as network marketing companies continue to establish their brand names and thereby increase their market share. Although market share concentration has been slightly rising over the past five years, the level of concentration is expected to remain low over the long-term. A moderate level of barriers to entry will allow new companies to enter the market to take advantage of the rising revenue over the next five years.  The report’s analysts forecast the global essential oil market to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.26% during the period 2016-2020.

With the increase an increase in the demand for essential oils, we are seeing more adulteration in essential oils-even in those that are relatively abundant and easily produced. What does this mean for authentic practitioners of Aromatherapy and Aromatic Medicine?

With the theme, Out of the Bottle and Into the Garden: Traditional Herbalism to Aromatic Medicine, the Alliance of International Aromatherapists International Conference aims to explore the use of various plant preparations while emphasizing the importance of the plants from which we obtain our precious oils. Lectures will feature experts from around the world discussing sustainability, ethics and professionalism while growing your business. The importance of how essential oil demand  is impacting the availability of our oils will be highlighted with attention to other types of plant medicine that can be used to provide complementary care in practice.

With the growing interest in Aromatic Medicine and questions regarding our ability to practice Aromatic Medicine and specific protocols that incorporate internal use of oils, we will feature two special lectures on Aromatic Medicine and protecting your business from government intrusion.

This August the Alliance of International Aromatherapists, in partnership with the Rutgers University Plant Biology Department (New Brunswick, NJ), will bring together 300-400 of the world’s top Aromatherapy leaders, practitioners, educators, research scientists, integrative health practitioners and entrepreneurs. Business development, thought-provoking content and endless networking opportunities are tied together by engaging and inspiring speakers, trade exhibits, and pre-conference workshops, and social events about the future of the Aromatic plant community, innovation, marketing, communication and imagination.

Registration is open and information about the schedule, speakers, pre-conference workshops, hotel and transportation are all online at www.aromatherapyconference.com.

 

Advancing Clinical Aromatherapy Education in Women’s Health

pam-conradPam Conrad Discusses Her New Evidence-Based Program

Interview by Leslie Moldenauer CHNC, HHP, Cert. Aroma

Pam Conrad, PGd, BSN, RN, CCAP, earned her Bachelor of Science Nursing degree from Purdue University and has been a registered nurse for over 25 years. Pam completed R J Buckle and Associates 18-month Clinical Aromatherapy course for healthcare professionals in 2000. Pam’s focus in Aromatherapy has always been integrative; combining time-honored nursing and clinical Aromatherapy.

Upon completion of Dr. Buckle’s course, her family moved to England for two years where she studied advanced Aromatherapy with nurses and midwives, and completed a Post Graduate Diploma in Complementary Studies at the University of Westminster Graduate School of Integrated Health, in London. This is where Pam met Denise Tiran and Ethel Burns–two of her mentors–who both specialize in Aromatherapy and pregnancy/childbirth and postpartum. Pam became Ms. Tiran’s first international intern and was able to learn first-hand how to integrate complementary Aromatherapy alongside her traditional practice.

In 2008, Pam taught a group of 12 obstetrics (OB) nurses evidence-based clinical Aromatherapy and developed the first hospital OB Aromatherapy program in the United States (Burns et al., 2000 and 2007).  Since that time, multiple hospitals in Indiana (and now Santiago, Chile) have completed this course and developed clinical programs.

Pam currently has the only evidenced-based women’s health/ maternity/clinical Aromatherapy course in the United States that is approved by the American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA).

LM: Pam, let’s talk a bit more about your evidence-based program being taught here in America. This is a substantial advancement for the industry. What makes your course unique? What is your course offering to potential students?

PC: Historically, the class has been nurses and nurse midwives. The program has recently extended to teach certified doulas as well as certified Aromatherapists. The International Journal of Professional Holistic Aromatherapy will be hosting the first class that includes certified Aromatherapists in February 2017.

The course is focused on labor, childbirth and postpartum. As new clinical evidence emerges, the course content is revised with Aromatherapy interventions for the nine months of pregnancy.

The program takes a clinical approach, which stands out from what is currently being taught in the United States. There are many factors that come into play when making a clinical decision with a patient, not just looking at the chemistry of a particular essential oil. We teach everyone how to analyze the person standing in front of them, looking at their medical history, medications, and to discern how they have responded to different therapies over the course of their lives. Some people react paradoxically to a therapy or an essential oil, this is taken into consideration as well. The clinical judgment and knowledge along with the property of the oils backed by evidence-based research is the basis of how the students are taught.

Another aspect that is covered in great detail is knowing how to decide which women are good candidates for Aromatherapy and which ones are not. We look at possible issues surrounding the neonate, so we teach what should be done for the mom with the baby as well as separate of the baby, in other words without baby present in the room.

In taking this well-rounded and evidence-based clinical approach, I believe that the program is incredibly unique, and very important to the community at large.

LM: Pregnancy and childbirth has until very recently carried with it a stigma, viewing it as a medical condition, rather than a natural and beautiful part of life. Can you talk briefly about how Aromatherapy is being used to facilitate the birthing process?

PC: Pregnancy, labor and childbirth are a beautiful and natural process for the female body. In normal healthy pregnancies, our bodies are well designed to adjust the many functions of our bodies as well as accommodate the growth and development of a fetus. Healthy nutrition, rest, and regular exercise can accomplish this task. At times women do become so uncomfortable with nausea, ingestion, stress, and aches and pains that Aromatherapy is a good choice. Occasional, very dilute and select essential oils used externally; i.e. Lemon (Citrus limon), Lavender (Lavandula angustofolia), and Red Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) have been very effective in our programs.

Unlike what seems like a popular notion, there is no need to help start the labor process. Utilizing Clary sage (Salvia sclerea) for example, is being overused with the idea that a therapist or a nurse can get labor started. This area needs to be understood more fully. If the mother is already in labor, there is no need to increase the contractions. This actually causes what is called hyper-contractions from uterine hyperstimulation (a potential complication of labor induction). This could create a risk for the mother or baby, especially if there are conditions such as cord around the babies neck, placenta previa1 or abrupto.2

The overall goal is to make the mother more comfortable. The more relaxed and comfortable she is, the more likely that natural labor is going to progress, as it should.

LM: Lavender was at one time considered an emmenagogue (uterine stimulant) and was considered contraindicated during pregnancy. In his book, Essential Oil Safety, 2nd Ed., Robert Tisserand dismissed this as a myth as he found no credible research to support that. Recently there has been some debate over this topic. Where do you currently stand on the issue?

PC: There have been some changes recently as far as opinions surrounding Lavender. The experts that I refer to are the clinical experts. When it comes to Aromatherapy, we all find a place to work from that we feel most comfortable, based on our own professional background. Being in the medical field for decades, I focus on the clinical experts and the evidence base, as well as our patient responses. Since beginning our program, we have collected patient data from over 1500 OB hospital interventions.

Historically, the agreement between Ethel Burns and Denise Tiran has been no topical application of Lavender until after the 24th week of pregnancy. The percentage for an acceptable essential oil during pregnancy is 0.5-1%. Once term labor begins this can be increased to 2%. This is a fraction of the dilution that you may have seen recommended often times in the industry.

In a clinical setting, when working with someone who has previous medical conditions or any other red flags; i.e. past miscarriages, in vitro fertilization (IVF),  multiples (twins, triplets,etc.) various blood lab abnormalities, high or low blood pressure, and swelling, the decision to be more conservative with Aromatherapy is recommended. For someone with no red flags, a decision may be made to use Lavender at the dilutions mentioned above before the 24-week mark. At that point, the only Lavender that would be used is Lavandula angustifolia, as ketones are a concern with other varieties of Lavender. If the soon-to-be-mother is going through such a high level of stress that it is insurmountable and puts a risk on the pregnancy and she needs help, Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) may be used.

As long as the mother is not allergic to or dislikes Lavender, it can be used throughout labor and postpartum for anxiety and pain. Red Mandarin is also very helpful for anxiety, indigestion, and nausea and is emotionally uplifting.

As a nurse for many years, the clinical perspective, patient care experience and evidence base all play a part in my practice and courses.

LM:  I would like to talk a little bit about your 2012 study conducted with Cindy Adams, “The effects of clinical Aromatherapy for anxiety and depression in the high risk postpartum woman.” Can you tell us a little bit about that clinical study?

The aim of the study was to determine if Aromatherapy is effective at improving anxiety and depression in women at high risk of postpartum depression. It was a study that included 28 women who were all 0-18 months postpartum. The treatment groups were randomized to either inhalation or the Aromatherapy ‘M’ Technique. The treatment consisted of 15 min sessions, twice per week for four consecutive week using a 2% blend of Rose (Rosa damascena) otto and Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). The non-randomized group avoided all Aromatherapy during this same time period. Allopathic treatment continued for all of the participants.

All subjects completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) at the beginning of the study. The scales were then repeated at the midway point (two weeks), and at the end of all treatments (four weeks).

No significant differences were found between Aromatherapy and control groups at baseline. However, the midpoint and final scores indicated that Aromatherapy had significant improvements greater than the control group on both EPDS and GAD-7 scores. No adverse effects were reported.

The study shows that Aromatherapy is very effective and safe as a complementary therapy in both anxiety and depression with postpartum women.

LM: What do you hope to see for the future of Aromatherapy? What other areas of support for women are you hoping to target in the near future?

Where I see the greatest importance for Aromatherapy during this passage of life is during the post-partum phase and early motherhood. The ability to identify a mom who is at risk for post-partum depression (PPD) is crucial. We can work with them to using Aromatherapy and other complementary therapies to help avoid PPD. We demonstrated the empowering use of the essential oil on mothers and their children in our published pilot study (Conrad and Adams, 2012).

The time during pregnancy and labor is the perfect time to teach a woman how to properly take care of herself during the post-partum period and beyond. When we are able to work as a team, thereby giving us nine months to provide the education to the mom as a complement to their care, greatly increases their quality of life. A mom can then to go to Aromatherapy first, rather than medical treatments, after birth. The postpartum period involves the mother navigating through a myriad of changes, both emotionally and physically. Aromatic complementary therapies can be a perfect stand alone support during the postpartum period for some women. In others, when medication is indicated, it can further support the mother physically and emotionally to improve her quality of life in early motherhood.

The IJPHA is proud to present Pam’s course in Women’s Health for Aromatherapists, nurses, nurse Aromatherapists, midwives, and doulas February 4-5, 2017 in Boulder, Colorado. For information about this program and to register, visit the IJPHA website at http://www.ijpha.com.

[1] Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix.

[2] Placenta abrupto is when the placenta detaches from the wall of the womb (uterus) before delivery.

References

Burns E et al.. (2000). An investigation into the use of Aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 6 (2), p141-147.

Burns E, Zobbi V, Panzeri D, Oskrochi R, Regalia A. (2007). Aromatherapy in childbirth: a pilot randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 114 (7), p838-844.

Conrad P and Adams C. (2012). The effects of clinical Aromatherapy for anxiety and depression in the high risk postpartum woman-A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 18 (3), 164-168.

Leslie Moldenauer has been studying natural living and holistic wellness for over 10 years. She is the owner of Lifeholistically.com, a trusted resource that covers essential oil safety and encompasses all that natural living has to offer. Leslie is passionate about providing education and tools to help others make decisions regarding safety above all things when utilizing aromatherapy in the home. Leslie earned her degree in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) at the American College of Healthcare Sciences in Portland, Oregon. She is currently earning an advanced diploma in Aromatic Medicine with Mark Webb (Australia), and has trained with Aromatherapy researcher and educator Robert Tisserand.

CO2 Extracts for Aromatherapeutic Use

 

CO2extracts

Image: naturalwisdom.co.uk

What are CO2s?

Aromatics produced via carbon dioxide extraction (CO2 extracts) have been around and in use for the past 15-20 years. While some, like German Chamomile and Calendula have become commonplace within the aromatherapy world, there are still many CO2 Extracts with little to no information available.

CO2 extracts are oils similar to distilled essential oils that can be used in Aromatherapy and Aromatic Medicine. They can be more subtle in fragrance and perhaps a little stronger in flavor as compared to essential oils. CO2 extracts have a different chemistry than their essential oil counterparts making them more suitable in a variety of aromatherapeutic preparations. CO2 extracts have the taste and aroma closer to that of the fresh plant, are more shelf stable and cost effective.

CO2 extracts are produced by using carbon dioxide under high pressure (solvent) to extract the aromatic compounds. Subcritical carbon dioxide processing carefully extracts only the aromatic compounds (Select CO2) while Supercritical carbon dioxide processing extracts the aromatic compounds, as well as the heavier non-volatile molecules like colors, resins and waxes (Total CO2). The process is done at low temperatures (just above room temperature) so it does not alter the extracted compounds. The process is efficient and yields little waste.

CO2 extraction technology video – YouTube © Nisgara Biotech 2014

Supercritical CO2 is used as a solvent to extract lipophilic compounds from natural herbs. These extracts are concentrated as high as 250 times as compared to the raw herb. Thus a small quantity in any product is enough, leading to cost effectiveness as compared to other products from different extraction techniques. This technology is environment friendly with minimum carbon footprint and CO2 is recycled as much as 95% in the system.

Visit http://www.nisargabiotech.com for more information.

Want to learn more?

The International Journal of Professional Holistic Aromatherapy (IJPHA) is hosting a 2-day seminar entitled CO2 Extracts: The How, What, When, Where and Why in Aromatic Therapies with Mark Webb, B.Sc. in Boulder, Colorado October 15-16, 2016. Participants will earn 12 CPDs (continuing professional development credits).

mark webb 2Mark Webb holds a B.Sc. Degree in Biochemistry and Plant Physiology and Biology from Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. He is an associate member of the International Aromatherapy and Aromatic Medicine Association (IAAMA), and a member of the Australian Society of Cosmetic Chemists (ASCC).  Mark has over a decade of experience formulating with CO2 extracts. Making him well placed to discuss their uses within the fields of cosmeceutical and aromatic therapies applications. His knowledge about how to incorporate these extracts in food and beverages for both therapeutic and non-therapeutic use enables him to provide a broad range of practical and day to day examples. If you have been curious about using CO2 extracts, this is the workshop to answer your questions

In this 2-day workshop, Mark will delve deeply into the world of CO2 Extracts, looking firstly at the production technology and how this effects the end product. He will compare and contrast a range of volatile and non-volatile, Select and Total CO2 extracts with their essential and fixed oil counterparts and oleoresins, discussing safe and effective usage within topical and internal formulations.

Learner outcomes include:

  • An overview of what CO2 extracts are & how they compare to essential and expressed oils, absolutes and oleoresins.
  • A detailed look at of how CO2 extracts are made and the differences between Select, Total, volatile and non-volatile extracts.
  • Comparing and contrasting the chemistry of CO2 extracts to other aromatics; such as essential oils.
  • Discussing the various applications of CO2 extracts across a variety of dose forms and application techniques.
  • Safe use and handling of CO2 extracts, recognizing which extracts to watch for and the importance of dilution within formulating.

Webb.4For more information about this class and to register, visit our website at http://www.ijpha.com.

 

Aromatherapy Research

writingAromatherapy may be making its way to the mainstream but that doesn’t mean it will be widely embraced by everyone. One reason for this is that there isn’t much research involving essential oils, as compared to pharmaceutical drugs. This is an issue that needs to be addressed in order to have Aromatherapy be respected by all people. Most aromatherapy users know the beneficial properties of essential oils but there is little to no evidence to support those claims. Lavender is known for its calming properties, Lemon can be used as an fever-reducer, and Rosemary has been recommended for hair loss and memory improvement. The benefits of essential oils are endless, but where is the research to back up these claims?

Now, this could be an entire blog post about money distribution in research and how “Big Pharma” has all the money. Instead this blog is about getting more people involved in conducting research. Many people have testimonials about certain blends and treatments but no research to prove it. Verification of testimonials is one way to conduct research. Investigating testimonials and a review of traditional literature you can transform the information into a case study.

From testimonials to case studies

The number one topic discussed on facebook groups and Aromatherapy articles are the testimonials about essential oils and blends. These testimonials are great and they help improve the lives of many people, but at the end of the day that is all they are…testimonials with no research to back up the claim..

Turning testimonials to a case study does require a little bit of work but, the little bit of work will go a long way to adding to the pool of knowledge in Aromatherapy. Begin with a question you want to answer. Find a client who is seeking a therapeutic outcome relevant to your question and obtain their consent for treatment. Choose an oil you believe to be well-suited to your client’s needs and how much to use, the method of application, and how long you intend to use the oil in this manner. Before any treatment is given it is important to note why that specific treatment is being used and why it works. This is where the little bit of work comes in. Do some investigation into why the oil you selected should be able to treat the patient’s complaint. Be sure that the oil is safe for your client. It is important to write down every step of the process to be referenced.

After some investigation to confirm your protocol, you may begin your treatment. This part simply requires documentation on the progress of the treatment. Documentation is half the battle when it comes to case studies. Once the treatment is over, the results must be analyzed, and the initial question will be answered.

Get out and do your own research

There are many questions to be answered regarding the use of essential oils. Aromatherapy needs more voices in research and this research can lead to more credibility. I encourage everyone to go out find a question that they want to find an answer to and do the research. Conducting the same procedure on multiple clients and combining the individual case studies creates a case series. From there you can take what you have learned and develop a pilot study.

Create a question, then do the research to find out if anyone else has done the same research. Find out as much information as possible about the question, and then create a hypothesis. This is a proposed explanation of the question. An example would be, I believe ‘A’ will happen because of ‘B.’ This is a simple idea that explains what you think will happen during the experiment. After this the actual testing begins. This is where documenting the process is important. Writing down the all the steps and outcomes will allow for referencing. If the procedure isn’t working then redesign how the test is administered.

Analyzing data is the final part and is the most exciting because it determines if the hypothesis is correct. Even if the results don’t prove the hypothesis you will have learned something by completing the process and you now have information to share.

Writing up your case study is easy if you follow this simple outline:

  1. Ask a question
  2. Background research
  3. Hypothesis
  4. Test or procedure
  5. Analyze data and draw a conclusion
  6. Communicate results.

Research doesn’t end if the result isn’t what you thought it would be. Everyone can do research. Remember it begins with a question and some passion to find the answer. Ask a question, be curious, and go do some research.

by Bryant Hernandez, Graduate Healthcare Administration

For a more detailed outline on how to write up your case study visit www.ijpha.com and click on “Case Study Outline.”

Aromatherapy–A Growing Industry

EOs and bottlesAromatherapy is a complementary therapy that has been on the rise over the last several years and has gone mainstream. More specifically the increase use of essential oils is making its presence on the market. The Aromatherapy and essential oil market had a record breaking year in 2015 displaying large revenue for essential oil participants (Aromatherapy and Essential Oil Markets, 2016). According to various research articles, the top two multi-level marketing companies had revenue over $1 billion each in 2015 (Aromatherapy and Essential Oil Markets, 2016).These numbers are very promising for aromatherapy and essential oils.

The reason for the big increase in the Aromatherapy market is, in part, due to the use of herbal medicine treatments. Globally, Aromatherapy is trending as a self-treatment to avoid doctor visits (Saha, 2016). This trend is leading to a huge increase in the market for essential oils, creating a large demand for more oil. Top oils globally include: Basil, Black Pepper, Clove, Eucalyptus, Jasmine, Lavender, Lemon, Sandalwood, and Tea Tree (Saha, 2016). The high demand for the oils is good news for multi-level marketing companies (Saha, 2016). These companies are the key players in the Aromatherapy market, and vary in quality. With Aromatherapy predicted to have a great impact on the global market by 2025, more companies are getting on board.

Quality in oils

The question that needs to be asked is, how will the big demand for Aromatherapy affect essential oils and essential oil availability? Right now it is too early to say, but there is already growing concern for the sustainability and the ethical harvesting of the plants used in the production of essential oils. An increase in demand suggests that there will be an increase in essential oils and essential oil companies. Big retailers in the United States such as Wal-Mart and Target are beginning to sell various brands of essential oils in the store, but also sell Aura Cacia in their online store. Wal-Mart has launched their essential oils with claims that 7 of the 9 are 100% pure essential oil (Jenkins, 2016). This is a bold statement since no information could be found to backup their claim that their oils are 100% pure. The essential oils also retailing at $5.97 for all the oils in the line.

With essential oils selling at $5.97 each, something isn’t quite adding up. Anyone who is familiar with essential oils knows that not every oil is going to sell for the same price. Right away this is a red flag because it begs the question what are they putting in bottle to sell at a low price?

Over at Essential Oil University, Dr. Robert Pappas has done some testing on the essential oils sold at Wal-Mart. According to his analysis, the oil labeled as Cinnamon oil in fact contains Cassia oil which cost a fraction of true Cinnamon bark and has a different chemistry. Additional testing also disclosed that the Lavender oil was not Lavender, but the lesser expensive Lavandin essential oil. From the odor alone Dr. Pappas could determine that the oil was not Lavender but rather Lavandin, a hybrid of Lavender oils. Lavandin has different Aromatherapeutic benefits when compared to lavender, so customers will be getting different results. Dr. Robert Pappas also goes on to evaluate Peppermint with predictable results, finding that the oil in the bottle was Cornmint. Not all the oils from Wal-Mart were not tested, but there was a pattern of deceit.

GuruNanda will be launching their essential oil blends into Wal-Mart this April with a $10.99 retail price across the board and scratch and sniff lids (Johnsen, 2016). The maker of GuruNada had this to say about their blends, “We’ve taken the guesswork out of Aromatherapy with these blends that combine carefully selected ingredients for maximum effect,” (Johnsen, 2016).

Any aromatherapist knows that their work isn’t “guess work” and actually involves a lot training and knowledge. If aromatherapy was about guessing then anyone could be an Aromatherapist. Once again it should be noted that no testing has been done yet to determine if the blends are pure. Production of an essential oil can vary from plant to plant which in turn affects the final cost. Quality of essential oils needs to be a high priority, even more so now, with the growing trend of Aromatherapy and essential oil use.

The future of essential oils

The growing field of Aromatherapy is great and wonderful for everyone. There are so many benefits from practicing Aromatherapy, but there should also be caution. With the growing popularity of Aromatherapy there is much concern for the quality and availability of essential oils. Creating a better awareness for essential oils, and how they are obtained, as well as their sustainability status is needed.

References

Aromatherapy and Essential Oils Market 2016. (2016, February). Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/research/ctdhw4/aromatherapy_and

Jenkins, A. (2015, June 3). Essential Oils Review. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://whoawaitwalmart.com/post/120626397235/what-we-think-earthly-elements-hello-friends

Johnsen, M. (2016, February 26). GuruNanda brings latest aromatherapy offerings to mass outlets. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://www.drugstorenews.com/article/gurunanda-brings-latest-aromatherapy-offerings-mass-outlets

Saha, S. (2016, February 22). Aromatherapy Market To Make Great Impact In Near Future by 2025. Retrieved April 12, 2016, from http://empowerednews.net/aromatherapy-market-to-make-great-impact-in-near-future-by-2025/1882526/

Dr. Robert Pappas Essential Oil University Links

Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/EssentialOilUniversity/

Website: https://essentialoils.org/

by Bryant Hernandez, Graduate Healthcare Administration

Cancer and Essential Oils

Frankincense resinCancer is a concern that affects millions of people around the world. With such a prominent disease there are a lot of researchers working diligently to develop treatments. A treatment that has been gaining a lot of traction in the most recent years involves the use of essential oils; more specifically, the use of Frankincense (Boswellia Carterii) essential oil. Despite the links to Frankincense essential oil and the treatment of cancer, it is not a miracle cure. In world where news sources are posting misleading articles it is important to discern what is good research to determine what benefits Frankincense actually possesses.

Frankincense resin  

It is important to understand how and why Frankincense is being linked as a cancer treatment. This essential oil is produced from the Boswellia trees found in India and Africa. The cancer treating chemical in Frankincense is boswellic acid which has anti-neoplastic properties. Anti-neoplastic properties have the ability to prevent or inhibit the development of a tumor. This information is where most claims regarding Frankincense being a cure for cancer are derived. However it is important to know that Frankincense oil does not actually contain boswellic acid, as the molecule is too heavy to be volatile (Tisserand, 2016) and therefore does not come out in the distillation process. Boswellic acid can be found in Frankincense resin because the molecular weight can be supported. So far there is limited research involving Frankincense resin and cancer. While some of the results are promising there isn’t enough to conclude the resin as a treatment.

Good research              

When it comes to Frankincense research most studies are done in vitro. In vitro studies are studies conducted outside the body’s biological context in single case. This type of research isn’t necessarily a bad thing, but it means the research is a long way away from being a treatment. Researchers Mark Barton Frank, Qing Yang and their colleagues did a study testing Frankincense oil.This study involved a range of concentration of Frankincense oil in which the oil was able to distinguish cancerous cells from normal bladder cells (Frank and Yang, 2009). Frankincense oil was able to induce bladder cancer cell death via multiple pathways activated by the oil. The important thing to note about this study is that it states that this isn’t a cure for cancer and more research is needed. Overall the study provided good evidence that could suggest future treatments involving Frankincense.

This research article makes no claims. As stated before, Frankincense oil contains no boswellic acid, but the resin does. This study tested the oil and had results regarding cancer cell death. The researchers further explain that this study is in vitro in an attempt to explain the benefits of Frankincense oil however in vitro testing (in a petri dish) does not necessarily translate to the same or similar effect in the human body. Acknowledging that Frankincense resin has anti-tumor properties allows for further research with the oil to determine if the oil has these similar properties. A follow-up study can be done to see if the resin has a greater effect on bladder cancer cells than the oil. While this research is well done, the final results show some promise but further research needs to be done to prove Frankincense oil as a treatment.

False claims      

In the last couple of months, there has been an article floating around on various Aromatherapy groups making false claims regarding Frankincense oil. Most of the people in the (facebook) Aromatherapy groups were debating the accuracy and credibility of the article. This article made outrageous statements with regard to breast cancer. It stated that topical treatment of Frankincense oil can cure cancer, as it claimed to have cured the author’s own cancer. This is a single claim by one person and one that has not been validated by credible source. It could be true that this author had their cancer cured, but that doesn’t mean that it was cured by Frankincense oil nor does it guarantee it will work for everyone. This claim also doesn’t include any other methods or treatments the author was receiving that could have contributed to their cure. It is also important to note that since doing research and writing this blog post the article has been taken down. There are no current records of this article, and the group posts have been deleted.

If this author did cure her breast cancer that is a wonderful thing and nothing should take that away from her. The problem is suggesting that it can cure all breast cancer and it puts light on the Aromatherapy industry. Making these claims without any research can give people false hope that their cancer can be cured. The article then goes into detail making more individual cases of Frankincense curing cancer, which is nothing more than shared testimonials that have not been evaluated and validated. There is no definitive research available on the oil or resin that suggest Frankincense can cure any form of cancer. Research is being done to determine the connection between the oil or resin and treatment.

For a fun look at the reality of scientific research check out this link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Rnq1NpHdmw

References  

Frank M B, Yang Q, Osban J, Azzarello J T, Saban M R, Saban R, Ashley R A, Welter J C, Fung K-M, Lin H-K. (2009). Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity. BMC Complement Altern Med. 9 (6). Published online. Available: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2664784/. Last accessed 8 March 2016.

Tisserand R. (2016). Frankincense Oil and Cancer in Perspective.  Available: http://tisserandinstitute.org

Additional resources/reading

http://tisserandinstitute.org/frankincense-oil-and-cancer-in-perspective/

http://roberttisserand.com/2015/03/frankincense-essential-oil-and-cancer/

http://www.massagetoday.com/mpacms/mt/article.php?id=15052

 

http://tisserandinstitute.org/citrus-oils-and-breast-health/

by Bryant Hernandez, Graduate in Integrative Health Technologies