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The complete guide on how to find reliable essential oil information


When we enter the world of aromatic plants, essential oils and aromatherapy, we’re usually all excited and pumped up to try everything. But it is precisely this phase of initial enthusiasm that may pose a threat. We can quickly misinterpret things or start following wrong or even dangerous advice, ending up doing more damage than good.

As a beginner, how can you recognise good and bad practices from a jumble of internet sources, books, friends, aromatherapists? What details should you pay attention to when discovering a new source of essential oil information, and which claims should set alarm bells ringing?

How can you know who is trustworthy and whom to avoid in a big circle?

In the beginning, things can look very confusing. People make all sorts of claims that may seem odd or contradict what others say, and you can quickly end up in an information overload.

I always recommend learning the basics before you start using essential oils: what essential oils are and what they are not, how they are produced, when is it justifiable to use them and when it is not, which ones are most suitable for home use and which you should avoid, and general safety measures. When familiar with the basics, everything will be much easier.

While differentiating between reliable and less reliable sources requires knowledge and experience, eliminating useless, misguided or even dangerous advice is relatively easy.

In the following, I will describe some key points that you can use to orient yourself and eliminate questionable sources even if you don’t have any experience. We can separate those key points into two groups: to the first group belong those concerning plants and essential oils as such and to the second one those relating to the use of essential oils and aromatherapy in general.

NOTE: The mentioned signs, phrases or recommendations have orientation purpose and mark only the most obvious criteria for identifying suspicious information sources. You should have in mind that we all continuously learn and make mistakes, and a lapse here and there does not necessarily mean that the source or a person behind it is unreliable. Moreover, new data about essential oils and their use is emerging fast, which means that something that held true yesterday may turn out to be incomplete or even wrong today. So check out multiple signs before deciding whether you trust someone or not.


  • Is there a definition of essential oils and is it accurate?

Essential oils aren’t any life force, they don’t circulate in plants like blood or even carry oxygen and nutrients, and thus aren’t any circulatory or immune system analogue of plants. If you see such claims your alarm bells should be ringing.

Read more about essential oil definitions and how they differ from the plant volatiles.

  • Not all aromatic extracts are essential oils

There’s no essential oil of jasmine, violet, honeysuckle, osmanthus, tuberose or carnation, and neither are there essential oils from animals. If it’s obvious that an author doesn’t discriminate between essential oils and solvent extracts (such as absolutes, supercritical (CO2) extracts, tinctures, etc.), this indicates the lack of the most basic knowledge about essential oils.

A particular part of the story is not distinguishing between essential oils and fatty plant oils. I heard about the peanut essential oil, for example. Essential oils aren’t technically oils. Generally, they don’t contain lipids, such as triglycerides (fats), waxes or sterols, although some contain very small amounts of fatty acids, a type of lipid. Essential oils are predominantly composed of terpenes and phenylpropanoids, and their derivatives.

  • Not distinguishing between natural extracts and perfume oils

Essential oils of peach, apple, strawberry and other fleshy fruits don’t exist. Their fragrances are sold as perfume oils, reconstitutions of natural fragrances using synthetically manufactured aroma chemicals, which also comprise a significant part in the majority of modern perfumes.

In recent years, however, natural extracts of certain fruits appeared on the market in the form of supercritical (CO2) extracts, or as mixtures of natural isolates. Natural isolates are single compounds obtained from plant extracts by a process called fractionation. That’s why reconstitutions from natural isolates can be marketed as natural products and used in natural cosmetics, even though coming from many different plants that may have nothing in common with the plant whose fragrance they’re used to reconstitute.

  • Are the botanical (Latin) names stated?

If a source is supposed to be an expert or a professional one, botanical naming is the standard. Clary sage and common sage, Roman chamomile and German chamomile, sweet basil and holy basil can differ substantially in their volatile composition and safety measures.

Botanical naming is the most precise and internationally accepted way of classifying plants; not employing it is not a good sign.

On the other hand, it’s useful if you get familiar with the botanical names, if only just a few basic ones. Searching for information using the botanical names will significantly boost the likelihood of finding higher quality results.

  • Claims that essential oils were used by the Ancient Egyptians and/or mentioned in the Bible

Yet another type of claims with no scientific evidence, sometimes reaching unbelievable proportions. Essential oils as we know them today have existed for about 1000 years (though some new but inconclusive evidence points in another direction, but that’s another story).

The oils mentioned in ancient texts were most likely herb and resin infused oils, not essential oils. When writing about the supposed ancient use of essential oils, authors frequently use just “oils”, omitting (on purpose?) the “essential” part. Such hiding behind unspecific terms is all over the place in many generic articles, listicles and infographics (see next bullet). You can check out for yourself how many essential oils does the Bible actually mention.

Let’s move on to some less obvious, but more significant points.

  • Equating beneficial effects of essential oil with herbs

This is likely the most widespread misassumption that is unique to aromatherapy. It started at least 400 years ago (but probably much earlier) when leading herbalists were incorporating distilled plant products into their medical practice (e.g., Culpepper 1652). Of course, nothing was known at the time about the chemistry of medicinal plants.

However, this generalisation continued in the 20th Century when early aromatherapists drew their knowledge mainly from herbal books. And sadly, it remains widely present in many of today’s popular aromatherapeutic books and online sources.

Although essential oils are highly concentrated, their composition represents only the volatile part of plants’ secondary metabolite profile. It is estimated that of all known secondary metabolites, volatiles present roughly about 1% (Dudareva et al. 2006).

In the majority of medicinal plants, known beneficial effects are due to non-volatile compounds, such as alkaloids, tannins, carotenoids, bitters, mucilages, flavonoids, saponins and vitamins. Aromatherapy is only a small and specific subset of more general phytotherapy.

Essential oils, for example, cannot have astringent effects because they don’t contain tannins. Distillates from St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) won’t have antidepressive activity as they don’t contain hypericin and hyperforin. Frankincense (Boswellia sp.) essential oils won’t contain anti-tumorigenic boswellic acids, and there will be no cannabinoids (such as THC and CBD) in the cannabis distillates. There’s much more to this – in fact, this misconception is so huge that it undermines the credibility of aromatherapy as a whole.

Is there a way to recognise this bad practice? Well, it’s difficult if you don’t know what to look for, but listing all sorts of healing effects without citing the relevant research (see next bullet) is already a bad sign. If the original research is cited, you can google the headline and usually it is evident from the abstract whether the study was conducted on essential oils or solvent extracts. If it just says that ‘extracts’ from X plant were used, you can be quite sure there were no essential oils involved.

It is true that the majority of research is done on solvent extracts and single constituents, rather than essential oils. But this shouldn’t be the reason or an excuse to extrapolate those findings to essential oils.

  • Is original research cited?

For general information about essential oils, citing original research is not necessary, but is indeed desired when making specific claims. Scientific literature is based on the empirical method (controlled conditions, precise measurements, sufficient sample size, reproducibility, statistics, peer review, etc.), and should thus be the primary source of essential oil information.

Citing original research not only lends credibility to claims that an author makes, but it’s also a fair way of making information transparent to the audience.

  • Is the cited research interpreted correctly? (if you’re a beginner, you can skip this one)

It’s easy to search databases such as PubMed, Research Gate or Google Scholar to find scientific articles, books and other reports. There are thousands of published papers about essential oils and their constituents.

What matters is how the research is interpreted. Although it may be difficult to determine if the cited research is correctly interpreted or even relevant, you should at least be aware of potential traps.

1) Not all research is quality, especially nowadays when quantity is more important than quality. The internet is full of dubious “scientific” journals and publishers that will publish just about anything, as long as they collect their publishing fees. Bad research can be noticed from a mile away, but sometimes it requires careful reading throughout the article.

2) Incorrect interpretation of research results can happen when an author lacks sufficient background, reads just an abstract of a study, or is just sloppy. One of the most common examples of misinterpretation is an over-interpretation from in vitro (lab) studies to whole organisms. If a study finds that an essential oil or a single compound from that oil exhibits anti-tumorigenic potential on a human tumour cell line, this doesn’t mean it can actually cure cancers in humans.

Another frequent misinterpretation is taking individual claims out of context, such as “forgetting” to mention that a study was conducted on mice (thus implicitly suggesting that the results are proven for humans) or that results are valid only in certain conditions. Such claims can quickly mislead us. In most cases, high-quality clinical trials supported by relevant mechanistic studies are the final step in providing proof that something works for humans.

3) Cherry picking. Let’s say you read an online article citing a study A that confirms the hypothesis X. You will believe that claim, right? But what if there’s also a study B (and perhaps C) that rejects that hypothesis or is inconclusive about it, but is not mentioned in the article?

You guessed it: it’s not good, it’s difficult to spot (unless you’re a specialist in a field) and it’s called cherry picking, or biased representation of data. There’s not much you can do about it, but bear in mind that nobody is entirely immune to it, including the researchers. In most cases, cherry picking is unintentional. Authors may simply find what they search for and cite it to back up their claims, without looking at the big picture.

  • Claiming that home users can discern essential oil quality and purity based on GC–MS analysis

When it comes to quality of essential oils, you will sooner or later encounter the acronym GC–MS (Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry). It is the key analytical method, which enables us to see the detailed chemical composition of essential oils.

The goal of the GC–MS analysis is to explain as much essential oil composition as possible and to identify potential impurities. The end result is a list of constituents and their percentages, identified in a specific distillation batch of essential oil.

In recent years, an idea became popular that home users themselves can read from the GC–MS report if an essential oil is pure and of high quality. The idea is indeed attractive, but in reality, it’s not that easy. Unless your oil is poorly adulterated (with something that obviously shouldn’t be there) and you know what you’re looking for, it’s very difficult.

In most cases, essential oils are adulterated with nature-identical aroma chemicals, produced via organic synthesis. The process of manufacturing aroma chemicals always leaves certain impurities, which act as markers analysts are looking for when verifying authenticity. There are other methods, such as measurements of optical properties of the molecules, which can further inform the analyst whether synthetic adulterants were added.

Non-specialists do not have this information at hand and must, therefore, rely on professional analysts or trust the providers.

Can the GC–MS analysis tell you the quality of essential oil?

Assuming you have a pure and authentic oil, what is the measure of quality? Is it the diversity of the constituents? High levels of key constituents? Or rich and natural smell?

Well, it depends on whom you ask; there’s no right or wrong answer. Quality depends on what you’re planning to do with your oil. The GC–MS analysis can help you with that decision, but it does not, by itself, determine the quality of essential oils.

You can, however, use the report to calculate safe dilution rates for oils that contain toxic or irritable constituents (see next bullet) or to pick up essential oils with the highest levels of desired constituents.


Now if we can pardon some incorrect information about essential oils since not every provider has a background in natural science, it is advisable to take a more critical stance towards various recommendations regarding their use. Let’s scroll through some key points that will help you determine whether the source is trustworthy or not.

  • Advising topical use of undiluted essential oils

You probably know that essential oils are highly concentrated mixtures of compounds that may be irritable or toxic if used undiluted. As a rule of thumb, all essential oils must be diluted before application, especially if you’re not familiar with the particular oil. For a dermal application, typically 1-3% concentration is used, but safe dilution rate varies considerably, depending on the essential oil, type of application (massage or local targeted application), age and dose.

How can you find safe dilution rates for specific essential oils?

It’s always good to have an evidence based literature at hand, whether you’re new to essential oil use or an experienced user. A classic resource on safety guidelines is Robert Tisserand’s and Rodney Young’s Essential oil Safety(Second Edition from 2014). Although some resources may be a bit outdated, you will find lots of useful information about essential oils and individual constituents, with updated safety guidelines and regulations.

If you don’t have an appropriate book or want to have the newest guidelines, or you’re thinking of selling your products, you can look at the IFRA’s Standards page for consumer cosmetic products safety recommendations. Search under the “Standards library” and click “+” (this will show details) in the search results table. For example, if you type in “lemon” and click “+” at the “Lemon oil cold pressed” search result, you will see this:

ifra essential oil

This means that the maximum recommended level for the dermal application of the cold pressed lemon essential oil is 2% (on a weight-per-weight basis). You will also notice that this limit is due to known phototoxic compounds in that oil and that you should take into account their combined effect when using multiple phototoxic materials (expressed citrus oils except sweet orange oil, and some others such as angelica or cumin, are phototoxic).

Note however that only a few natural extracts are listed in the standards library, and you will likely have to search by individual toxic or sensitising constituents, which act as limiting substances. This makes sense as their quantities can vary significantly from batch to batch. For example, if your oil has 33% citral (geranial + neral) and the safety limit for citral is 0.6% for a leave-on topical application (Category 4), you should dilute to 100/33 = 3*0,6% = 1,8% max.

But how can you know which compounds are likely to be limiting for specific oils?Well, there’s no other way but to learn them.

Some common examples: carvone (spearmint), cinnamic aldehyde (cinnamon), citral (lemon balm, lemon grass, citronella, lemon tea tree, verbena…), citronellol (geranium), cuminaldehyde (cumin), estragol (tarragon, basil, star anise, fennel…), eugenol (clove), geraniol (geranium, thyme, palmarosa), octenyl acetate (lavender), methyl eugenol (rose, holy basil, pimento, bay leaf…), rose ketones (rose). This is by no means an exhaustive list!

  • Advising the use of essential oils in water

Quite frequently we can encounter recommendations to add essential oil to a glass of drink. In this case, we’re dealing with the internal use of essential oils (see next bullet), as well as the use of undiluted essential oils.

Have a look at this advice:

hint of mint? Well, if you try this (better not to) I can guarantee it won’t be a hint but a burning punch in your mouth. And what’s wrong with the mint leaves, anyway?

Water and essential oils don’t mix, regardless of the quantities used. You risk contact of an undiluted essential oil with mucus layers in the oral cavity, oesophagus and stomach, which can cause burns and inflammations.

The fact that essential oils and water don’t mix must also be taken into account when preparing aromatic baths.

  • Advising the internal use of essential oils

The notorious internal use. In general and especially as a beginner you should avoid internal application of essential oils for any therapeutic purpose. It’s OK if you mix a drop of essential oil into a jar of honey to flavour it, but targeted internal use for therapeutic purposes usually consists of much higher doses and is limited to very specific cases.

Bear in mind that internal use doesn’t include only ingestion with oral capsules or direct ingestion together with food or drink, but also an application by rectal and vaginal suppositories. Application of aggressive essential oils on mucous surfaces such as oral cavity, vagina or rectum can cause serious burns and tissue necrosis when used in high concentrations, and local inflammations in prolonged exposures even when highly diluted (Endo and Rees 2007, Sarrami et al. 2002).

For some, ingesting essential oils is something progressive, as opposed to ‘old-school’ traditional thinking that is against internal use. I don’t see this as a traditionalist/progressionist issue because essential oils are extremely diverse; any generalisations on their activity and safety measures are simply misplaced. Each case needs to be assessed individually, and more safety data specific to internal use is generally needed.

In lay advice and coffee talks, internal use is often recommended for irrelevant, inappropriate or overly casual situations. For example, drinking water with lemon oil for more energy (where a better option would be to drink a glass of good old lemonade), treating vaginal infections with a tampon soaked in tea tree oil, or easing the teething pain with clove oil.

Another misleading claim comes from certain well-known providers, asserting that their essential oils are the only ones pure and therefore safe enough to be used internally. They may further justify this by pointing to other providers’ labels stating that essential oils are not intended for internal use.

It is indeed possible to register certain essential oils as a food supplement in some countries such as U.S. However, this does not depend on quality or purity of essential oils but on regularities under which they are registered (see next bullet). What matters the most is that essential oils’ safety does not depend on the producer, but on their chemical composition, application mode, dilution rate and dose.

  • Labelling and marketing essential oils as therapeutic, medical, clinical and food grade

What exactly is the measure of therapeutic, medical, clinical grade? Who determines that?

As long as our essential oils are pure and authentic, they are suitable for therapy. Various labels, grades and fancy looking acronyms have nothing to do with actual therapeutic potential; they are just a marketing move. Don’t let them fool you.

There are of course some legitimate certificates such as those concerning growth standards (bio, organic, etc.), cultural standards (e.g., kosher) and certain international quality standards such as ISO or pharmacopoeias. The latter, however, define industry standards rather than therapeutic potential as such, and they apply only to a fraction of essential oils.

Certain essential oils have the GRAS status (meaning “generally recognised as safe”) which is approved by the FDA. Hence, they can be registered as food additives in the U.S. Again, the GRAS, or similar status in other countries, is not a quality or therapeutic grade, it just means that the material – a mixture or a single compound of natural or synthetic origin – is safe for its intended use as a food additive (flavoring) in very small amounts.

Check out this post about essential oil quality and certificates if you want to dig a bit deeper into this topic.

The bottom line is that there are no objective criteria for quality and no formal regulatory bodies for quality or therapeutic certification. Again, quality is a matter of context and depends on what we want to do with our essential oil.

  • Employing functional groups to explain biological activity of essential oils

You may have encountered claims such as:

  • To prepare a wake-up blend, choose essential oils high in alcohols
  • Roman chamomile essential oil prevents spasms because it is rich in esters
  • You should avoid using essential oils rich in ketones because they are neurotoxic

Well, I wish it were that easy! The functional group approach shows up in various forms, colours and sizes. Sometimes it’s hard to recognise as such because authors may not present it as a theory/hypothesis but simply take it as a fact. Whenever you encounter claims or graphical representations how essential oils are supposed to work in the body based on whole groups of molecules with similar properties, this is functional group theory.

I’ve written elsewhere extensively why the functional group theory is wrong. If you want to skip the details, the takeaway message is that this theory is only superficially scientific and has no real explanatory value. It’s one thing to classify essential oil constituents according to their chemical structure, which is fine (and it’s how you learn chemistry), but it’s something entirely different to attempt to explain extremely complex biological processesbased on mere chemical classifications.

Biology is way more than chemical groups. The good news though is that you don’t need to be an expert in chemistry to know how to use essential oils.

  • Recommending the use of essential oils for 1001 troubles

Essential oils certainly have proven biological and psychological effects, but they’re far from being a miracle solution to every problem. I’m frequently bewildered when reading through all sorts of indication lyrics, claiming that anything can be used to treat just about everything.

For example, listings of “27 reasons why you should use x oil” can be misleading because the majority of those reasons usually won’t have practical significance. You would either intoxicate yourself before some of the effects could even take place, or there are simply better solutions out there.

Be careful when encountering any big claims. Usually, it’s just a sign that someone wants to sell their products or give an impression of being an expert (see next bullet).

  • Over-emphasising own expertise

This one can be rather tricky to notice by a beginner. Listing large numbers of beneficial effects, using unnecessarily difficult to understand, fancy-sounding terminology, citing a lot of poor or irrelevant research, offering definitive answers to complex problems, or continuously stressing one’s own experience in the field, should raise an eyebrow.

Learning how to tell apart talking smart and being smart is not easy. Try to read between the lines, don’t take what you read for granted – no matter where it comes from – and think rationally. Don’t let big claims and promises take over when deciding whom do you trust. Here’s a nice list of common logical fallacies, specifically relevant for aromatherapy; it’s an excellent exercise for developing critical thinking.

It’s quite funny actually when some people continuously underscore evidence-based approach but in the next moment say something esoteric or biologically nonsensical. This is not holism but mixing apples and oranges. Bear in mind that a true expert is very careful about the claims he or she makes, rather than acting like a know-it-all.

  • Recommending the use of essential oils to treat diseases that need professional medical care

Take the amazing stories about almost miraculous healing that you read on facebook with a grain of salt. Even in cases that someone truly recovers from a severe condition, it’s very difficult to pinpoint the exact cause.

There’s no proof that essential oils can cure cancer or any other serious medical condition in humans. Following such advice can give you false hope, causing you to lose precious time when you could already be seeking professional help. Recommendations of this sort are not only dangerous but also unethical.


When separating the wheat from the chaff, it is useful to have in mind who is the source of essential oil information. We can divide them into 3 categories.

  • Providers: online store owners, salespeople in specialised stores, or individual sellers and advocates that can be independent or belong to a multi-level marketing network.
  • Educators: book authors, bloggers, presenters of webinars, workshops and courses.
  • Producers: they often also sell essential oils directly to end users or act as educators (e.g., lead distillation workshops).

Depending on who is the information source, we can adjust our critical stance accordingly. From the producers we expect expertise in distillation techniques and procedures, but not a detailed theoretical knowledge about the chemistry of medicinal plants or essential oil safety. We are responsible for our own safety. The same applies to the sellers. Although we expect them to know their products, they may not be qualified to recommend their use, often relying on inaccurate sources or incidental cases.

As opposed to producers and retailers, you will typically aim to learn the most from the professional educators and therefore should be most critical about the information they provide. Keep in mind the key points described earlier. If the basic stuff doesn’t hold, what’s the chance that more specific topics will?

There is one more thing I would like to mention here: trusting your circle of people you know well can importantly affect how you will use your essential oils. Blind trust may not always be the best practice when attempting any serious use. Before taking advice, check out if recommended essential oils are suitable for your need in the first place, how to use them safely and what are the potential side effects.


People often ask me where to start in all the jumble of information. The initial enthusiasm is usually a big enough motive to start educating yourself. But at the same time, it’s also a critical phase where you can make mistakes. Just start reading, eliminate dubious sources and don’t stick to a single source.

Education however never ends and the more you know, the more there is to learn. You will soon realise: there are no final answers! There’s much more about essential oils we don’t know about than what we do know. What matters the most is developing a critical distance. When you start having doubts, you’re on the right track!


Dudareva, N., Negre, F., Nagegowda, D.A. & Orlova, I. 2006. Plant volatiles: recent advances and future perspectives. Critical Review in Plant Sciences 25: 417–440.

Endo, H., & Rees, T. D. 2007. Cinnamon products as a possible etiologic factor in orofacial granulomatosis. Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal 12(6), 440-444.

Sarrami, N., Pemberton, M. N., Thornhill, M. H., & Theaker, E. D. 2002. Adverse reactions associated with the use of eugenol in dentistry. British Dental Journal, 193(5): 253-255.

Header image: Pixabay

Dr. Petra Ratajc is a biologist, researcher and educator, and the insightful person behind the most excellent blog The PhytoVolatilome. Her educational background includes medicinal and aromatic plants, secondary plant metabolites, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, conservation biology, and general biology.

Petra started The PhytoVolatilome because she felt “that the use of aromatic plants and especially essential oils is losing its botanical foundation, turning into instant problem solving. Nowadays, it seems that anyone with some basic training in aromatherapy is an expert in medicine and chemistry of essential oils.”

Chemistry is fine, but it’s not enough. I believe that understanding the plants themselves, together with human biology and some critical thinking is crucial for understanding the wider context and acquiring true knowledge. The big picture empowers you to start acting independently of popular information sources, make informed decisions, and avoid getting fooled by the snake oil sellers. –Dr. Petra Ratajc

We at the IJPHA are huge fans of Petra’s insights and her writing. This article was reprinted with her generous permission in the hopes that you will share this with your colleagues and friends who are using essential oils. Check out her blog to read more of her wonderful articles.

The AIA Aims to Shed Light on Growing Concerns Regarding Essential Oils

A recent market report indicates favorable shifts in consumer demand and market expansion have helped the Essential Oil Manufacturing industry thrive in the current five-year period (IBIS World, 2016).

Market share concentration in this industry is low; no company accounts for more than 5.0% of industry revenue in 2016. Furthermore, IBIS World estimates that the top four players account for less than 10.0% of revenue in 2016. The level of concentration has been slowly rising over the past five years as network marketing companies continue to establish their brand names and thereby increase their market share. Although market share concentration has been slightly rising over the past five years, the level of concentration is expected to remain low over the long-term. A moderate level of barriers to entry will allow new companies to enter the market to take advantage of the rising revenue over the next five years.  The report’s analysts forecast the global essential oil market to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 8.26% during the period 2016-2020.

With the increase an increase in the demand for essential oils, we are seeing more adulteration in essential oils-even in those that are relatively abundant and easily produced. What does this mean for authentic practitioners of Aromatherapy and Aromatic Medicine?

With the theme, Out of the Bottle and Into the Garden: Traditional Herbalism to Aromatic Medicine, the Alliance of International Aromatherapists International Conference aims to explore the use of various plant preparations while emphasizing the importance of the plants from which we obtain our precious oils. Lectures will feature experts from around the world discussing sustainability, ethics and professionalism while growing your business. The importance of how essential oil demand  is impacting the availability of our oils will be highlighted with attention to other types of plant medicine that can be used to provide complementary care in practice.

With the growing interest in Aromatic Medicine and questions regarding our ability to practice Aromatic Medicine and specific protocols that incorporate internal use of oils, we will feature two special lectures on Aromatic Medicine and protecting your business from government intrusion.

This August the Alliance of International Aromatherapists, in partnership with the Rutgers University Plant Biology Department (New Brunswick, NJ), will bring together 300-400 of the world’s top Aromatherapy leaders, practitioners, educators, research scientists, integrative health practitioners and entrepreneurs. Business development, thought-provoking content and endless networking opportunities are tied together by engaging and inspiring speakers, trade exhibits, and pre-conference workshops, and social events about the future of the Aromatic plant community, innovation, marketing, communication and imagination.

Registration is open and information about the schedule, speakers, pre-conference workshops, hotel and transportation are all online at


Advancing Clinical Aromatherapy Education in Women’s Health

pam-conradPam Conrad Discusses Her New Evidence-Based Program

Interview by Leslie Moldenauer CHNC, HHP, Cert. Aroma

Pam Conrad, PGd, BSN, RN, CCAP, earned her Bachelor of Science Nursing degree from Purdue University and has been a registered nurse for over 25 years. Pam completed R J Buckle and Associates 18-month Clinical Aromatherapy course for healthcare professionals in 2000. Pam’s focus in Aromatherapy has always been integrative; combining time-honored nursing and clinical Aromatherapy.

Upon completion of Dr. Buckle’s course, her family moved to England for two years where she studied advanced Aromatherapy with nurses and midwives, and completed a Post Graduate Diploma in Complementary Studies at the University of Westminster Graduate School of Integrated Health, in London. This is where Pam met Denise Tiran and Ethel Burns–two of her mentors–who both specialize in Aromatherapy and pregnancy/childbirth and postpartum. Pam became Ms. Tiran’s first international intern and was able to learn first-hand how to integrate complementary Aromatherapy alongside her traditional practice.

In 2008, Pam taught a group of 12 obstetrics (OB) nurses evidence-based clinical Aromatherapy and developed the first hospital OB Aromatherapy program in the United States (Burns et al., 2000 and 2007).  Since that time, multiple hospitals in Indiana (and now Santiago, Chile) have completed this course and developed clinical programs.

Pam currently has the only evidenced-based women’s health/ maternity/clinical Aromatherapy course in the United States that is approved by the American Holistic Nurses Association (AHNA).

LM: Pam, let’s talk a bit more about your evidence-based program being taught here in America. This is a substantial advancement for the industry. What makes your course unique? What is your course offering to potential students?

PC: Historically, the class has been nurses and nurse midwives. The program has recently extended to teach certified doulas as well as certified Aromatherapists. The International Journal of Professional Holistic Aromatherapy will be hosting the first class that includes certified Aromatherapists in February 2017.

The course is focused on labor, childbirth and postpartum. As new clinical evidence emerges, the course content is revised with Aromatherapy interventions for the nine months of pregnancy.

The program takes a clinical approach, which stands out from what is currently being taught in the United States. There are many factors that come into play when making a clinical decision with a patient, not just looking at the chemistry of a particular essential oil. We teach everyone how to analyze the person standing in front of them, looking at their medical history, medications, and to discern how they have responded to different therapies over the course of their lives. Some people react paradoxically to a therapy or an essential oil, this is taken into consideration as well. The clinical judgment and knowledge along with the property of the oils backed by evidence-based research is the basis of how the students are taught.

Another aspect that is covered in great detail is knowing how to decide which women are good candidates for Aromatherapy and which ones are not. We look at possible issues surrounding the neonate, so we teach what should be done for the mom with the baby as well as separate of the baby, in other words without baby present in the room.

In taking this well-rounded and evidence-based clinical approach, I believe that the program is incredibly unique, and very important to the community at large.

LM: Pregnancy and childbirth has until very recently carried with it a stigma, viewing it as a medical condition, rather than a natural and beautiful part of life. Can you talk briefly about how Aromatherapy is being used to facilitate the birthing process?

PC: Pregnancy, labor and childbirth are a beautiful and natural process for the female body. In normal healthy pregnancies, our bodies are well designed to adjust the many functions of our bodies as well as accommodate the growth and development of a fetus. Healthy nutrition, rest, and regular exercise can accomplish this task. At times women do become so uncomfortable with nausea, ingestion, stress, and aches and pains that Aromatherapy is a good choice. Occasional, very dilute and select essential oils used externally; i.e. Lemon (Citrus limon), Lavender (Lavandula angustofolia), and Red Mandarin (Citrus reticulata) have been very effective in our programs.

Unlike what seems like a popular notion, there is no need to help start the labor process. Utilizing Clary sage (Salvia sclerea) for example, is being overused with the idea that a therapist or a nurse can get labor started. This area needs to be understood more fully. If the mother is already in labor, there is no need to increase the contractions. This actually causes what is called hyper-contractions from uterine hyperstimulation (a potential complication of labor induction). This could create a risk for the mother or baby, especially if there are conditions such as cord around the babies neck, placenta previa1 or abrupto.2

The overall goal is to make the mother more comfortable. The more relaxed and comfortable she is, the more likely that natural labor is going to progress, as it should.

LM: Lavender was at one time considered an emmenagogue (uterine stimulant) and was considered contraindicated during pregnancy. In his book, Essential Oil Safety, 2nd Ed., Robert Tisserand dismissed this as a myth as he found no credible research to support that. Recently there has been some debate over this topic. Where do you currently stand on the issue?

PC: There have been some changes recently as far as opinions surrounding Lavender. The experts that I refer to are the clinical experts. When it comes to Aromatherapy, we all find a place to work from that we feel most comfortable, based on our own professional background. Being in the medical field for decades, I focus on the clinical experts and the evidence base, as well as our patient responses. Since beginning our program, we have collected patient data from over 1500 OB hospital interventions.

Historically, the agreement between Ethel Burns and Denise Tiran has been no topical application of Lavender until after the 24th week of pregnancy. The percentage for an acceptable essential oil during pregnancy is 0.5-1%. Once term labor begins this can be increased to 2%. This is a fraction of the dilution that you may have seen recommended often times in the industry.

In a clinical setting, when working with someone who has previous medical conditions or any other red flags; i.e. past miscarriages, in vitro fertilization (IVF),  multiples (twins, triplets,etc.) various blood lab abnormalities, high or low blood pressure, and swelling, the decision to be more conservative with Aromatherapy is recommended. For someone with no red flags, a decision may be made to use Lavender at the dilutions mentioned above before the 24-week mark. At that point, the only Lavender that would be used is Lavandula angustifolia, as ketones are a concern with other varieties of Lavender. If the soon-to-be-mother is going through such a high level of stress that it is insurmountable and puts a risk on the pregnancy and she needs help, Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) may be used.

As long as the mother is not allergic to or dislikes Lavender, it can be used throughout labor and postpartum for anxiety and pain. Red Mandarin is also very helpful for anxiety, indigestion, and nausea and is emotionally uplifting.

As a nurse for many years, the clinical perspective, patient care experience and evidence base all play a part in my practice and courses.

LM:  I would like to talk a little bit about your 2012 study conducted with Cindy Adams, “The effects of clinical Aromatherapy for anxiety and depression in the high risk postpartum woman.” Can you tell us a little bit about that clinical study?

The aim of the study was to determine if Aromatherapy is effective at improving anxiety and depression in women at high risk of postpartum depression. It was a study that included 28 women who were all 0-18 months postpartum. The treatment groups were randomized to either inhalation or the Aromatherapy ‘M’ Technique. The treatment consisted of 15 min sessions, twice per week for four consecutive week using a 2% blend of Rose (Rosa damascena) otto and Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia). The non-randomized group avoided all Aromatherapy during this same time period. Allopathic treatment continued for all of the participants.

All subjects completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and

Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) at the beginning of the study. The scales were then repeated at the midway point (two weeks), and at the end of all treatments (four weeks).

No significant differences were found between Aromatherapy and control groups at baseline. However, the midpoint and final scores indicated that Aromatherapy had significant improvements greater than the control group on both EPDS and GAD-7 scores. No adverse effects were reported.

The study shows that Aromatherapy is very effective and safe as a complementary therapy in both anxiety and depression with postpartum women.

LM: What do you hope to see for the future of Aromatherapy? What other areas of support for women are you hoping to target in the near future?

Where I see the greatest importance for Aromatherapy during this passage of life is during the post-partum phase and early motherhood. The ability to identify a mom who is at risk for post-partum depression (PPD) is crucial. We can work with them to using Aromatherapy and other complementary therapies to help avoid PPD. We demonstrated the empowering use of the essential oil on mothers and their children in our published pilot study (Conrad and Adams, 2012).

The time during pregnancy and labor is the perfect time to teach a woman how to properly take care of herself during the post-partum period and beyond. When we are able to work as a team, thereby giving us nine months to provide the education to the mom as a complement to their care, greatly increases their quality of life. A mom can then to go to Aromatherapy first, rather than medical treatments, after birth. The postpartum period involves the mother navigating through a myriad of changes, both emotionally and physically. Aromatic complementary therapies can be a perfect stand alone support during the postpartum period for some women. In others, when medication is indicated, it can further support the mother physically and emotionally to improve her quality of life in early motherhood.

The IJPHA is proud to present Pam’s course in Women’s Health for Aromatherapists, nurses, nurse Aromatherapists, midwives, and doulas February 4-5, 2017 in Boulder, Colorado. For information about this program and to register, visit the IJPHA website at

[1] Placenta previa is a problem of pregnancy in which the placenta grows in the lowest part of the womb (uterus) and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix.

[2] Placenta abrupto is when the placenta detaches from the wall of the womb (uterus) before delivery.


Burns E et al.. (2000). An investigation into the use of Aromatherapy in intrapartum midwifery practice. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 6 (2), p141-147.

Burns E, Zobbi V, Panzeri D, Oskrochi R, Regalia A. (2007). Aromatherapy in childbirth: a pilot randomised controlled trial. BJOG. 114 (7), p838-844.

Conrad P and Adams C. (2012). The effects of clinical Aromatherapy for anxiety and depression in the high risk postpartum woman-A pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 18 (3), 164-168.

Leslie Moldenauer has been studying natural living and holistic wellness for over 10 years. She is the owner of, a trusted resource that covers essential oil safety and encompasses all that natural living has to offer. Leslie is passionate about providing education and tools to help others make decisions regarding safety above all things when utilizing aromatherapy in the home. Leslie earned her degree in Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) at the American College of Healthcare Sciences in Portland, Oregon. She is currently earning an advanced diploma in Aromatic Medicine with Mark Webb (Australia), and has trained with Aromatherapy researcher and educator Robert Tisserand.

Putting some order into Matricaria recutita et Chamaemelum nobile

A wonderful article written by Cathy Skipper comparing and contrasting Roman and German Chamomile!

Cathy Skipper

The choice of Chamomile came up for the first edition of our magazine by chance but one of those chances where you feel that you are being gently pushed in a certain direction, A conversation on a herbal forum about the differences betweenChamaemelum nobile L and Matricaria recutita triggered me into trying to put some order into this vast subject and pin point some of the differences between Roman and German chamomile.

ImageTo begin with chamomile is one of those plants that everyone has heard of as a herbal tea, it was probably the first herbal tea I made myself as a young student thirty years ago in London when I started to feel the need for plants in my diet. The only snag with this is that in most of these cases, it probably wasn’t chamomile but Matricaria recutita, ok so I am being too pernickety I hear…

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I’ve Jumped off the Essential Oil Bandwagon

normal after all

Photo courtesy of Honolulu Media Photo courtesy of Honolulu Media

Okay, not so much the essential oil bandwagon but definitely the MLM essential oil bandwagon.

A couple of years ago, I was introduced to doTerra essential oils. I was intrigued by the idea of the therapeutic use of essential oils. I signed up and was excited to learn more.  Prior to that, my only experience with essential oils was using them for making homemade cleaning products.  I had tried using lavender essential oil a few times and hated it – it always gave me a headache.  After starting with doTerra, I learned that I didn’t hate lavender, I only hated adulterated lavender, which is most lavender available to purchase in stores.  I learned there was a difference between oils bought in most stores and doTerra’s Certified Pure Therapeutic Grade (CPTG) oils and of course I learned that doTerra is the only company with CPTG…

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the big, burning question, part ii: how I choose my essential oil suppliers

The Untamed Alchemist further discusses the important factors that matter in selecting essential oils as they matter to her…and I wholeheartedly agree!

The big, burning question I so often get is, “what brand of essential oils do you recommend?” The first part of my response to the question, focused on the question itself, can be found in part i of this series here. In this post you’ll find part ii of iii, focused on the criteria I use in choosing my essential oil suppliers.

Part II: How I Choose My Primary Essential Oil Suppliers

There are a wide variety of essential oil suppliers and they can vary tremendously in the quality and purity of their oils, their commitment to sustainability, their customer care, their empowerment of safe use, and their engagement with the aromatherapy community; choosing the best among them can be difficult, but there are a surprising number of companies who offer quality essential oils who have met my relatively stringent standards.

There are two categories of things I consider when choosing my suppliers: the nitty-gritty details of…

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the big, burning question, answered (sort of), part i of iii

I am sharing this blog piece written by a dear friend who is always aver so eloquent in expressing her point of view (often shared by myself and so many others in the aromatic community). I highly encourage anyone engaged in buying essential oils to read this. (PS…there’s no brand bashing)

Of all of the questions I’m asked as an aromatherapist, the question about “which brand” of essential oils I recommend is BY FAR the most commonly posed — it’s also one of the most problematic and troublesome questions to answer. It’s especially precarious to provide a pat answer on a blog….

For me to really address this question meaningfully takes a lot of energy, honesty, and context, especially as I find it impossible to answer in short fashion. So I’ll be “answering” this question in three parts.

My “big picture” has to be in place for you to understand and appreciate my response, not least because my thinking challenges the context of the question itself.

So, rather than answer the question by naming a company, I’m going to walk you through how I address this question in the context of my workshops–and that’s going to take more than one post. My response will come in three parts: my perspective on…

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Improving the Immune System

Essential oil.fruitveg.supplmntSix essential oils for boosting immunity  

Spring is here and that means so are stuffy noses and annoying coughs. With seasonal changes we are more susceptible to becoming ill. A good way to avoid being under the weather is to keep the immune system strong. The immune system is the line of the defense for the body and is what keeps us healthy. There are many ways to boost immunity from essential oils to minimal exercise. Keeping the immune system healthy isn’t a one time job, it takes work and requires different methods to keep it in top shape. Great ways to boost your immunity include essential oils, herbs, food and vitamins.

Essential oils  

Using essential oils to boost immunity is an excellent way to ensure you stay healthy through seasonal changes. These essential oils are some that have great immunity properties; Spearmint, Balsam Copaiba, Sweet Orange, Rosalina, Clary Sage, and Tea Tree. Of course there are more oils that can improve immune system but these six oils have specific properties which are for the immune system.

Spearmint (Mentha spicata)

This essential oil has a great scent but also contains the chemical carvone. Carvone is part of the ketone functional group and possesses antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Carvone is abundant (62.85%) in Spearmint. Using a little Spearmint (1 drop per 5 ml) in a massage oil or 3-4 drops in a diffuser for 20 minutes twice per day is a great way to boost the immune system as it helps to loosen and expel mucous and cool and reduce fever.

Copaiba Balsam (Copaifera langsdorfii Desf., Copaifera officinalis)

Copaiba Balsam is rich in β-caryophyllene (65.7%), a chemical with biological activity that helps improve immunity. β -Caryophyllene is part of the sesquiterpene functional group and can be useful immunostimulant as well as having antiviral properties. It is also used to relieve general aches and pains that accompany illness. It can be used in massage oil and diffuser blends and pair well aromatically with Roman Chamomile, Cedarwood, and Jasmine.

Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) 

When it comes to boosting immunity d-limonene, a monoterpene gets the job done. Sweet Orange essential oil is rich in d-limonene (96%) containing more than Lemon essential oil (65%).  Limonene-rich oils are an excellent general tonic for the immune system. They are also wonderful decongestants, are antibacterial and effective antioxidants making very efficient for boosting immunity. The aroma of limonene-rich oils is bright and pleasant and can add a little sunshine to the otherwise gray outlook that comes with illness.

Rosalina (Melaleuca ericifolia)

Rosalina is in the Melaleuca family and is also known as Lavender Tea Tree. Rosalina is rich in linalool (35-55%), a monoterpenol. Linalool is commonly found in Lavender in smaller amounts (approximately 37%). Linalool is wonderful in combating airborne microbes making it a useful addition to air mists/spray and for blends used in vaporizers and diffusers. Linalool also helps to relax the nervous system encouraging much needed rest. Consider blending the pleasant-smelling Rosalina with Lavender, Lemon, and Tea Tree. Blending these oils and using in a diffuser for 20 minutes twice per dayis an excellent way to boost the immune system.

Clary Sage (Salvia sclerea)

Rich in linalyl acetate (50-75%), an ester, Clary sage essential oil is great for balancing the body and allowing it to function properly. The bioactive properties of linalyl actate include, but are not limited to, reducing pain and inflammation, fighting bacteria, relaxing the nervous system and stimulating the immune system. This essential oil is also nice for improving mood by lifting the spirits. Clary Sage blends well with Lavender, Cedarwood, and Bergamot.

Tea Tree (Melaleuca alternifolia)

Tea Tree essential oil contains terpinen-4-ol (30-80%), a monoterpenol that is highly antibacterial and antiviral. Terpenin-4-ol also helps to boost white blood cells, hence improving immunity making Tea Tree essential oil a “must have” in the medicine cabinet. Use the oil during seasonal changes in a diffuser or environmental spray mist.

Essential oils aren’t the only way to help the body to help itself improve immunity. Another great way to improve the immune system is through the use of herbs.


We have been using herbs to improve immunity for centuries. Plants are one of the oldest and purest ways to improve the body. Two herbs that can improve the immune system are Ginseng and Echinacea.

Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) 

Ginseng root is known for its immune building properties. Extracts from the stems, leaves and mostly the root have shown to maintain homeostasis of the immune system. The root of the herb also increases resistance to illness and microbial infections. The way Ginseng does this is by boosting the immune system functions. Macrophage activity increases when Ginseng is consumed. Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that will consume foreign substances. Increasing macrophage activity will put the body on alert allowing it to combat foreign substances more efficiently. Ginseng can be consumed in many forms, pills, powder, and tea. When buying Ginseng products it is important to note what parts of the plant are being used and what percentage of the product is actually Ginseng. Looking for a product label to ensure that the whole plant is used. If the whole herb isn’t being used then the benefits of Ginseng may not be as effective.

Echinacea (Echinacea purpurea)

Echinacea is one of the most popular herbs, especially in the United States. Echinacea, when used preventatively is great for reducing cold symptoms. The herb itself is great for boosting immunity, as it contains chemicals derived from the root; such as polysaccharides, flavonoids, chicoric acid, polyacetylenes and alkylamides. The root contains high levels of volatile oils which are odorous compounds. An example would be isobutylamide, an alklymide that provides taste and smell of Echinacea. As for the plant portion it has polysaccharides which set off activity in the immune system. Polysaccharides release TNF (tumournecrosis factor) which will increase the levels of macrophage interlekin-1 and interferon beta-2. Alkylamide and chicoric acid will also boost immunity by stimulating phagocytosis. The chemicals in Echinacea stimulate phagocyte activity improving the body’s health and wellness.

These are just two of many herbs that improve immunity, however they are the two that are most readily available.

Food and vitamins

Incorporating certain foods and vitamins into the diet is another way to increase immunity. Great foods to introduce into the diet would be garlic, red bell peppers, broccoli, and ginger. Garlic helps increase immunity by having sulfur-containing compounds such as allicin. Allicin is a organosulfer compound that has antibacterial, anti-fungal, and antiviral activity. Red bell peppers are high on vitamin C and is a great source of beta-carotene. Vitamin C maintains skin health and prevents colds, while beta-carotene helps maintain proper eye health. Broccoli is a great food with vitamins A, C and E. This vegetable is also loaded with antioxidants which helps prevent certain types of cell damage. Finally ginger has similar effects as it contains vitamin C. In addition, ginger has the added benefit of helping the body to reduce cholesterol. This plant contains many vitamins and minerals such as; thiamine, riboflavin, calcium, iron, and magnesium. The combination of these vitamins and minerals allows the body to reduce cholesterol and maintain a balanced immune system.

Vitamins provide a great impact when comes to supporting the immune system. The foods listed above have the necessary vitamins to help boost the immune system, but they can also be consumed in pill form as well. Some of the best vitamins for boosting immunity are vitamin A, C, E and B12.

Using a combination of essential oils, herbs, food and vitamins can be a very effective way way to improve immunity. Keeping a strong immune system is a year long task and requires many different ways to keep it healthy.

By Bryant Hernandez, Student Health Administration

Is Aromatherapy safe for babies and children?

Adorable little blond kid relaxing in spa with having massage

Photo: romrodinka/iStock

Aromatherapy and children–Is it safe for my kid? What oils should I use? What works? And what doesn’t? These are questions that have been circling the Aromatherapy community for some time. Even experts debate what is suitable for children, and what dosage should be used. When using essential oils with children it is always important to do research; nothing beats well cited articles with credible sources. Aromatherapy is used to help the body to heal itself. There are many ways Aromatherapy can enhance the body and improve how it functions. Aromatherapy is safe for children when used in a safe and knowledgeable way. There are many ways essential oils can be used for kids, one just needs to follow the ground rules.

Carrier oils

Carrier oils are key when using essential oils for children. Diluting the oil will ensure that the children don’t get overexposed to certain oils. There are many different oils that can be used as carriers; for example sweet almond and grapeseed oil.

Sweet Almond oil

If your child doesn’t have a nut allergy sweet almond oil is great oil for lotions, creams and massage. The oil works well for dry, normal and combination skin. Almond oil can help reduce itching, cracking, and inflammation.

Grapeseed oil

This carrier is derived from grape seeds from spent grapes used in wine making. Grapeseed is a great basic carrier oil that can be used for all skin types. The oil is light, has no smell, and penetrates the skin quickly. The carrier is great for children because it doesn’t cause allergic reactions.

Essential oils and baths for your children

The benefits of Aromatherapy are wonderful and these benefits can be experienced by children. Essential oils have stimulating and healing properties that can greatly influence the lives of children of all ages. It is important to note that when using essential oils with toddlers and infants the oil needs to be diluted. As they are still growing, children’s systems haven’t fully developed, diluted oils will still give them therapeutic benefits without over stimulating their senses. It is important to note that these essential oils will be diluted before using them therapeutically. Always combine the essential oil with the milk prior to adding to the bath water. The milk helps to disperse the essential oils as the oils and water do not mix. Skipping this important step allows the essential oil to sit on top of the water where they will be quickly absorbed (undiluted) by the skin. Essential oils like to be in a lipid substance most like itself, as in your skin’s sebum (natural oil). Mixing the essential oils in milk allows for proper dilution and dispersion in water making it a safer application for babies and children. Milk can also be substituted with a teaspoon of honey or castile soup (olive based).

3 days to 3 months

Essential oils that would be beneficial for infants are Roman chamomile, lavender, and mandarin. Remember that the oils need to be diluted and should not applied neat. These oils can be used for a baby’s bath by mixing 1 drop of Roman chamomile, lavender, or mandarin into 1 teaspoon of milk or cream before adding it to the bath water. One drop of any of these three oils when mixed with milk (as an emulsifier/dispersing agent) then diluted in a tub of water is a very safe way to use the essential oils with a baby.

3 months to 5 years

As your child grows, so does the list of essential oils that can be used. In addition to the oils mentioned above, your toddler can also use bergamot, cedarwood, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lemon, rose, rosemary ct. verbenone (for children over the age of 2), sandalwood, tea tree, thyme ct. linalool and ylang ylang (for children over the age of 2). A bath blend for toddlers 3 months to 3 years is the same as it is for infants but there is a wider selection of essential oils that can be used. For children 3 to 7 years, the amount of essential oil can be increased 2 drops of essential oil from the approved list combined with milk and added to the bath water.

Using citrus oils in the bath diluted as indicated falls far below the 1 drop in 15 ml guideline to avoid phototoxicity, however if you are still concerned you can use distilled lemon instead of the expressed oil and bergamot FCF (furanocoumarin-free) as the phototoxic elements have been removed.

5 years to puberty

At this age all oils that are safe for adults can be used, but in smaller amounts. A bath blend for this age range (5 to 10 years) is 3-4 drops of an approved essential oil combined with 1 tsp of milk. For 10 years and up the amount of essential oils can be increased to 5-6 drops with 1 tsp of milk.

The KEY to using essential oils in the bath is in adding the essential oils to milk or castile soap first, then adding it to the bath water. This is an important step in properly diluting the essential oils and dispersing them. Simply dropping the essential oils in water does not dilute them as they do not mix. The oils will simply float on top until it comes in contact with the skin where it is absorbed (undiluted).

Safe formulations for children 

Coughs and colds (3 months and older)

Essential Oils: Lavender, lemon or bergamot, and tea tree

Massage Treatment: In a non-reactive bowl combine 1 drop of each of the essential oils (lavender, lemon or bergamot, and tea tree) with 4 tsp of sweet almond oil. Use for a chest and back massage.

Overexcitement (3 months and older)

Essential Oils: Cedarwood, frankincense, sweet orange, rose, sandalwood, and ylang ylang*.

Bath Treatment: Combine 1 tsp of milk with age-appropriate number drops alone or in combination of essential oils (cedarwood, frankincense, sweet orange, rose, sandalwood, and ylang ylang*) then add to warm bath water.

When creating blends for children it is important to remember what oils are suitable as well as how much of each essential oil can be used for each age range.

Overall essential oils are safe for children to use when handled correctly. Always in moderation; a few days on and a couple of days off. Using essential oils with children can enhance their quality of life by positively affecting their behaviors, mood, and sleep quality.

*Ylang ylang not to be used with children under the age of two years old.

by Bryant Hernandez

Use all health care options available

better health aheadWhen we think of health care, we usually think of traditional medical care that involves the diagnosis and treatment of chronic illness, cancer, etc., which many people refer to as “Western medicine.”

In addition to the type of medical care we have all grown up with, there are several other approaches to health care that are known as “complementary” and “alternative.” Other areas of nontraditional health care include “integrative medicine” as well as “functional medicine.” So, what do all these terms mean and why should we think about using these types of health care?

In general, these are different approaches to health care with a history of use and origins outside of mainstream medicine; and although the term CAM uses the words complementary and alternative together and often interchangeably, these two words refer to somewhat different concepts of health care.

“Complementary” refers to using non-mainstream health care together with traditional or conventional medical care. The term “alternative” refers to using non-mainstream health care in place of traditional health care.

Another term we hear is “integrative medicine.” Think of the use of massage therapy or guided imagery. These are ways of treating a person using nontraditional means to help them heal. They integrate traditional medical care with alternative therapies. As an example, some cancer treatment centers use integrative health care programs which offer acupuncture or meditation to help manage symptoms and side effects of the cancer along with its traditional treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, etc.).

It is interesting to see that “integrative health care” is happening now and is a growing trend among people who understand the benefits. For these individuals it is important to utilize any and all means of health care that will help them treat their illness or, in the case when a person does not have a defined illness, simply stay healthy. The National Center for Complementary & Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) uses the term “complementary health approaches” when discussing natural products or, mind and body health care practices.

“Natural” products include herbs and botanicals, vitamins, minerals and probiotics which are often marketed as dietary supplements. Evidence shows that the value of these alternative products is significantly underestimated. When you look at the research and the scientific evidence for the use of botanicals (herbs and plants) for the treatment and prevention of illness and disease, the evidence is overwhelming. There are hundreds if not thousands of research reports that support the use of natural products for treatment and prevention. Examples include fish oil, echinacea, and mineral supplements. It is interesting to remember that penicillin comes from a fungus; and digoxin, a heart medication, comes from the foxglove plant. When we talk about using anti-oxidants to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease, we need to understand that most of these come from plants.

NCCAM also includes “mind and body practices” as other forms of alternative health care. These include acupuncture, massage therapy, meditation, relaxation techniques, spinal manipulation, osteopathic manipulation, chiropractic therapies, tai chi, yoga, hypnotherapy, to name a few. NCCAM is the government’s lead agency for scientific research on health care practices outside of mainstream medicine. Its mission is to define through scientific investigation the usefulness and safety of complementary health care approaches and to understand their roles in improving health. This scientific evidence will help people make informed decisions about their health care. More information about this organization can be found at

Another area of complementary medicine is called “functional medicine,” which focuses on alternative treatments emphasizing the interaction between the environment and the gastrointestinal, endocrine and immune systems. Knowing the function of these systems within the body helps to understand the approach of functional medicine. The gastrointestinal (GI) system is the first line of defense the body has to bacteria, viruses, toxins, chemical, and other potentially harmful substances. Maintaining a healthy GI tract is necessary if we are going to be able to ward off these invaders. The endocrine system is the chemical system of the body which contains and controls the hundreds of hormones that keep us healthy. Knowing that there are so many environmental, health and life factors that affect our hormones is a no-brainer to understand why it is so important to keep this system healthy. The immune system allows us to fight infections and probably also helps us to deal with cancer cells and other illnesses.

Keeping the body functional should be one of the most important goals for health care. How do you do this? The answer to this is what I like to refer to as lifestyle management. This is a daily approach to life that allows you to maintain good health:

• a functional GI, endocrine and immune system;

• a sound and productive brain;

• a musculoskeletal system that allows you to move around and do all the physical things you want to do every day;

• a social and spiritual personality that brings you happiness and fulfillment and enables you to give back, pay it forward and to be grateful for all the blessings you have.

I can tell you from personal and professional experience that one of the most rewarding things you can do is to practice lifestyle management. I do this in my medical practice and in my personal life. It is so enjoyable to see a person take control of their health by taking control of their life. When they realize the power they have over their health, and all the benefits they get from keeping good health practices as the No. 1 priority in life, it is amazing to see what a person can accomplish and what a wonderful life they can enjoy!

Functional medicine is practiced by many physicians who find it important to not only treat a person’s illness but also to prevent illness, disease and disability. The American Board of Functional Medicine (ABFM) is an independent organization that certifies physicians who practice functional medicine.

I believe in and have practiced traditional medical care as a board certified internist for 20 years so I can attest to the significant benefits of this approach. With the addition of complementary health care products and services, we add another dimension to our health care and make available many other prevention and treatment approaches. Therefore, the recommendation would be to continue to rely on traditional medical/health care and add on complementary products, services and treatment approaches as necessary. This will enable you to take full advantage of all that is offered from Western and Eastern philosophies.

Stay will my friends and as always please send comments and questions to

Dr. Salvatore Lacagnina is vice president of health and wellness for Lee Memorial Health System.

Reprinted with permission