The essential oil extracted from the seeds of dill (Anethum graveolens L.) was demonstrated in this study as a potential source of an eco-friendly antifungal agent. To elucidate the mechanism of the antifungal action further, the effect of the essential oil on the plasma membrane and mitochondria of Aspergillus flavus was investigated. The lesion in the plasma membrane was detected through flow cytometry and further verified through the inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The essential oil caused morphological changes in the cells of A. flavus and a reduction in the ergosterol quantity. Moreover, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), acidification of external medium, and mitochondrial ATPase and dehydrogenase activities were detected. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation was also examined through fluorometric assay. Exposure to dill oil resulted in an elevation of MMP, and in the suppression of the glucose-induced decrease in external pH at 4 µl/ml. Decreased ATPase and dehydrogenase activities in A. flavus cells were also observed in a dose-dependent manner. The above dysfunctions of the mitochondria caused ROS accumulation in A. flavus. A reduction in cell viability was prevented through the addition of L-cysteine, which indicates that ROS is an important mediator of the antifungal action of dill oil. In summary, the antifungal activity of dill oil results from its ability to disrupt the permeability barrier of the plasma membrane and from the mitochondrial dysfunction-induced ROS accumulation in A. flavus.
Research article: Tian J, Ban X, Zeng H, He J, Chen Y, et al. (2012) The Mechanism of Antifungal Action of Essential Oil from Dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus. PLoS ONE 7(1): e30147. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0030147
Read the full article here: http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0030147
Editor: Bob Lightowlers, Newcastle University, United Kingdom
Copyright: © 2012 Tian et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This work was supported by the National Mega Project on Major Drug Development (2011ZX09401-302), the Commonweal Specialized Research Fund of China Agriculture (201103016), the Key Program of Natural Science Foundation of Hubei Province of China (2010CBB02301), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (20103010101000185). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Image: Holistic Photo
Check out the spring 2013 issue of the IJPHA for more information on Dill (Anethum graveolens). www.ijpha.com
Linden flowers (and bract – the leaf-like structure attached to the flowers) make a beautiful and delicate tea that eases tension and anxiety and has an overall calming effect to the body, making it an excellent evening tea to aid sleep . It can also be used to ease muscle tension, headaches and menstrual pain. It has an affinity for the heart and is an amazing heart tonic on all levels. It lowers blood pressure and can help arteriosclerosis and works well in combination with Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) for heart conditions. Emotionally, the two combined can ease heartache and help heal a broken heart. Traditionally, Linden was used to treat epilepsy and convulsions.
Try these recipes…
Recipe by Erin Smith
1 part Linden Tea (you can use fresh or dried linden flowers)
1 part Lemonade
Sliced strawberries (to taste)
If possible, make the linden tea the night before, allowing it to infuse overnight. Strain and combine with the lemonade in a large pitcher. Add the strawberries; if wanting a stronger strawberry flavor fill a 1/4 of the pitcher with slices. Add ice and serve.
Linden infused honey
1 part linden flowers
1 part raw local honey
Place your fresh linden flowers in a glass jar. While the bract is also traditionally used for medicinal purposes, using only the fresh flowers will make a stronger flavored honey. Cover with honey. Make sure that the flowers are completely submerged in honey. The flowers will tend to sit at the top for the first few days. If after a few days, they are still not submerged, add more honey until they are covered. Allow to sit for 2-6 weeks and use as desired. The flowers will become candied and are delicious on their own. If you wish to remove the flowers after infusing, then place the flowers in a make-shift tea bag made out of cheesecloth and place in jar (with the edges sticking out of the top so it will be easy to remove later). Cover with honey. After it has infused, lightly warm the honey (do not over heat) until it has a more liquid consistency and remove the “tea bag”. For a lighter flavored honey, cut the amount of flowers used in half.
For more delicious ways to use herbs in food, check out Erin Smith’s Herbal Kitchen program in Boulder on July 17th.
The Van Dyke
Recipe by Michael Heim
2 oz Bombay Sapphire Gin
0.5 oz fresh lemon juice
0.5 oz linden infused honey syrup (3:1 honey:water)
1 Bar spoon of house grapefruit bitters.
Shaken, double strained up in a chilled coupe glass
For more information about Linden/Lime (Tilia spp.) check out The Center for Integrative Botanical Studies Newsletter at http://www.integrativebotanical.com/plant-of-the-month-july/
Image: Linden blossoms and leaves All rights reserved by Jude’s Jewels /Flickr.com
Posted in Aromatherapy, Herbs, Integrative Health, recipe with essential oils, skin care, Uncategorized
Tagged aromatherapy teas, herbal drinks, herbal teas, IJPHA, Lime, Linden, linden recipes, lora cantele, summer herbal recipes, Tilia